Thursday, January 27, 2011

Can India surpass China: Elephant vs Dragon

India's surprising economic miracle

The country’s state may be weak, but its private companies are strong.HORRIBLE toilets. Stagnant puddles buzzing with dengue-spreading mosquitoes. Collapsing masonry. Lax security. A terrorist attack. India’s preparations for the 72-nation Commonwealth games, which are scheduled to open in Delhi on October 3rd, have not won favourable reviews.

“Commonfilth”, was one of the kinder British tabloid headlines. At best—assuming that the organisers make a last-minute dash to spruce things up—the Delhi games will be remembered as a shambles. The contrast with China’s practically flawless hosting of the Olympic games in 2008 could hardly be starker. Many people will draw the wrong lesson from this.

A big sporting event, some people believe, tells you something important about the nation that hosts it. Efficient countries build tip-top stadiums and make the shuttle buses run on time. That India cannot seem to do any of these things suggests that it will always be a second-rate power.

Or does it? Despite the headlines, India is doing rather well. Its economy is expected to expand by 8.5% this year. It has a long way to go before it is as rich as China—the Chinese economy is four times bigger—but its growth rate could overtake China’s by 2013, if not before (see article). Some economists think India will grow faster than any other large country over the next 25 years. Rapid growth in a country of 1.2 billion people is exciting, to put it mildly.

People power
There are two reasons why India will soon start to outpace China. One is demography. China’s workforce will shortly start ageing; in a few years’ time, it will start shrinking. That’s because of its one-child policy—an oppressive measure that no Indian government would get away with. Indira Gandhi tried something similar in the 1970s, when she called a state of emergency and introduced a forced-sterilisation programme. There was an uproar of protest. Democracy was restored and coercive population policies were abandoned. India is now blessed with a young and growing workforce. Its dependency ratio—the proportion of children and old people to working-age adults—is one of the best in the world and will remain so for a generation. India’s economy will benefit from this “demographic dividend”, which has powered many of Asia’s economic miracles.

The second reason for optimism is India’s much-derided democracy. The notion that democracy retards development in poor countries has gained currency in recent years. Certainly, it has its disadvantages. Elected governments bow to the demands of selfish factions and interest groups. Even the most urgent decisions are endlessly debated and delayed.

China does not have this problem. When its technocrats decide to dam a river, build a road or move a village, the dam goes up, the road goes down and the village disappears. The displaced villagers may be compensated, but they are not allowed to stand in the way of progress. China’s leaders make rational decisions that balance the needs of all citizens over the long term. This has led to rapid, sustained growth that has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. Small wonder that authoritarians everywhere cite China as their best excuse not to allow democracy just yet.

No doubt a strong central government would have given India a less chaotic Commonwealth games, but there is more to life than badminton and rhythmic gymnastics. India’s state may be weak, but its private companies are strong. Indian capitalism is driven by millions of entrepreneurs all furiously doing their own thing. Since the early 1990s, when India dismantled the “licence raj” and opened up to foreign trade, Indian business has boomed. The country now boasts legions of thriving small businesses and a fair number of world-class ones whose English-speaking bosses network confidently with the global elite. They are less dependent on state patronage than Chinese firms, and often more innovative: they have pioneered the $2,000 car, the ultra-cheap heart operation and some novel ways to make management more responsive to customers. Ideas flow easily around India, since it lacks China’s culture of secrecy and censorship. That, plus China’s rampant piracy, is why knowledge-based industries such as software love India but shun the Middle Kingdom.

India’s individualistic brand of capitalism may also be more robust than China’s state-directed sort. Chinese firms prosper under wise government, but bad rulers can cause far more damage in China than in India, because their powers are so much greater. If, God forbid, another Mao were to seize the reins, there would be no mechanism for getting rid of him.

That is a problem for the future. For now, India’s problems are painfully visible. The roads are atrocious. Public transport is a disgrace. Many of the country’s dynamic entrepreneurs waste hours each day stuck in traffic. Their firms are hobbled by the costs of building their own infrastructure: backup generators, water-treatment plants and fleets of buses to ferry staff to work. And India’s demographic dividend will not count for much if those new workers are unemployable. India’s literacy rate is rising, thanks in part to a surge in cheap private schools for the poor, but it is still far behind China’s.

Advantage India
The Indian government recognises the need to tackle the infrastructure crisis, and is getting better at persuading private firms to stump up the capital. But the process is slow and infected with corruption. It is hard to measure these things, but many observers think China has done a better job than India of curbing corruption, with its usual brutal methods, such as shooting people.

Given the choice between doing business in China or India, most foreign investors would probably pick China. The market is bigger, the government easier to deal with, and if your supply chain for manufactured goods does not pass through China your shareholders will demand to know why. But as the global economy becomes more knowledge-intensive, India’s advantage will grow. That is something to ponder while stuck in the Delhi traffic.

Wireless-NGN: the future of communication

Wireless-NGN: the future of communication

Wireless represents the fastest-growing segment of the telecom industry; it is poised to undergo significant technological change as 3G LTE and 4G wireless are emerging at a faster rate.
At the same time, NGNs (Next Generation Networks) represent a fundamental paradigm shift in the wireline and wireless core networks from circuit switching to packet switching.
The two will become highly synergistic over time and wireless-NGN integration will be both technically and economically feasible almost immediately.

Next Generation Networks (NGN) are converged voice/data multi-service networks that operate in a multi-vendor environment. NGN is an architecture that provides seamless integration of both new and traditional telecommunications services across high-speed packet networks, interworking among clients of heterogeneous capabilities.
This architecture is usually structured around four major layers of technology: the core connectivity layer includes routing and switching, network and access gateways; the access and customer-premises equipment (CPE) layer includes the various technologies used to reach customers; the application server layer contains enhanced services and value-added applications; the management layer provides network services and business management functions.

Each of these layers is supported by a number of standards that are key to the successful implementation of an NGN.

The architecture and implementation of the Next Generation Network (NGN) must be based on open, standard-based interfaces and protocols. This is essential to achieve multi-vendor interworking and to accelerate the rate on innovation.
NGN is based on a distributed architecture that helps greatly to reduce the implementation costs while giving flexibility in the actual deployment.

The NGN is able to support highly customizable services that are easily and rapidly created as well as deployed economically throughout the network. While it is important to enable new services, it is also critical to preserve the existing services provided by the legacy network.
Next Generation Networks (NGN) technology, is a new initiative created collectively by ITU (International Telecommunication Union), ETSI (European Telecom Standards Institute), and 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) that aims at delivering all these new communication features on a “network agnostic” or otherwise called “heterogeneous networks” communication environment, is one where the only discriminating factors for service provisioning will be the user himself, his selected service types and the desired quality of service (QoS).

In this respect, the NGN technology provides a single solution for various network types integration, and of all communication technologies it embraces (fixed, mobile, wireless), and addresses the problems in providing service “ubiquity” and “seamlessness” connectivity, besides dealing with issues such as, zero service disruption for moving, roaming, handover users and QoS guarantee among different technology networks with diverse QoS.

Next generation networks have finally been identified as network with the following common characteristics: convergence of various data communication types over the IP, i.e. data, multimedia, voice, video; fixed, wireless and mobile network convergence; access to a common set of services that can be provided over multiple access network types (ADSL, UTRAN, WiFi, WiMAX, etc) with features like user handover and roaming capabilities; IP-based core transport networks; possibility for using any terminal type (PC, PDA, mobile telephone, set-top boxes, etc); seamless terminal, user and personal mobility; user-driven service creation environments; common set of services, admission policies, authentication type, always possible network accessibility regardless of the user connection type to the network.

Migration of mobile networks to NGN is driven by the enhanced capability of 3G UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone Service) access networks and standardization process is more elaborate as for fixed networks case.

Speed of this migration will depend on widespread acceptance and appropriation of new services by end-users; but also on the maturity of the newly introduced technologies.

What's in store for technology in 2011?

What's in store for technology in 2011?

While 2010 saw the unveiling of hot products like the iPad and iPhone 4 -- as well as the widespread adoption of the Windows 7 and Android operating systems -- 2011 looks poised to build on the best of what the preceding year had to offer.

Tablets everywhere Apple's iPad was just the beginning. In 2011, expect an onslaught of competitors that want to take a bite out of Apple's near monopoly in the "pad" market.
New models from HP, BlackBerry maker Research in Motion, Motorola, Dell, Asus, Cisco, Lenovo, and others are expected to be rolled out in 2011.
While these products may not have the instant name recognition of an iPad, they'll all likely have something that the iPad doesn't: affordability.
What will Apple do in response? There are plenty of shortcomings in the iPad that could be addressed by an iPad successor.

Social networking warfare Upstarts like Facebook and Twitter took the world by storm in 2010. Will tech heavyweights like Google stand by and watch success like that go unchallenged? Unlikely.
Twitter's 140-character niche may be tough to replicate, but expect 2011 to see competitors attempt to chip away at Facebook's success. Google is currently rumoured to have a 'Google Me' product in the wings, which is expected to give Facebook some competition in 2011. Others are likely to follow suit.

Clouds everywhere There are plenty of reasons for cloud computing to be taken seriously -- by both corporations and consumers -- in 2011.
The first is accessibility. Internet access is close to ubiquitous in many areas now, so storing your data on some server that you can reach only when online is less of an issue than it used to be.

The second, though, is cost. In an age when budgets are under the microscope, the cost of running and maintaining your own storage or servers is a factor that can feasibly be eliminated by using cloud-based applications and storage.
And finally, there's the issue of backups. Put simply, backup routines are someone else?s problem when your data is on the cloud -- and that's a good thing, since many people fail to back up their data adequately, if at all.

Storage Think big and fast in 2011. Traditional mechanical hard drives will be available in 3-terabyte (TB) capacities and larger -- and at prices that will be budget-friendly.
Speed freaks, though, will want to look at the upcoming crop of solid state drives (SSDs), which will take full advantage of the newest 6 gigabit per second (Gb/s) SATA drive connectivity standard to pump data through your PC at roughly twice the speed of today's widespread 3 Gb/s standard.

SSDs will continue to command a price premium in 2011, but increasing capacities overall will bring down prices on the units that are currently the costliest. For those who have been waiting for SSDs to get big enough to be interesting, expect 600 gigabyte (GB) drives to
appear early in the year.

Networking Networks are generally boring, but 2011 will see some exciting advances in how you get online -- and how quickly.
First, the speedy 802.11n wireless standard will become firmly entrenched in notebooks and wireless routers, making wired-like speeds widely available to notebooks and other wireless devices.

Even better, a plethora of 'three-stream' routers will hit the market, making it possible to stream different types of data across wireless spectrums, so your music listening and file downloading won't slow down your internet surfing.
For those who want the reliable speed of wired connection, the new HomePlug AV2 standard will allow gigabit networking speeds over the standard electrical wiring in your home.

USB 3.0 was unveiled in 2010, but hardly anyone noticed. Expect that to change in 2011, as a flood of new products are unleashed that take advantage of USB 3.0?s tremendous speed advantage over USB 2.0, as well as its bi-directional communication prowess.

Not only will 3.0's theoretical 10x speed advantage over 2.0 make fast external storage a reality, but its ability to send and receive data simultaneously will mean that a wide range of peripherals that bumped up against the limits of 2.0's data transfer rate will be able to adopt USB wholeheartedly. In 2011, don't buy a desktop or notebook PC that's not equipped with the improved USB standard.

Mobile shake-up Expect more choice and more tumult in the mobile space than ever before. For the first time, the smartphone market won't consist of BlackBerry and iPhone and everyone else.

Google Android-based phones and even Microsoft's Windows Phone 7 will provide real competition for the market leaders from both a price and feature standpoint.
For users, though, not everything about 2011 will be good in the world of mobile tech. Expect improvements in network speed to be slow and unsatisfactory, and expect more advertisers to begin crowding the content you get on your mobile device as well.

Searching for Extra Dimensions

Searching for Extra Dimensions

What extra dimensions, you probably think, having just read the title. We know very well that the world around us is three-dimensional. We know East from West, North from South, up from down – what extra dimensions could there possibly be if we never see them?

Well, it turns out that we do not really know yet how many dimensions our world has. All that our current observations tell us is that the world around us is at least 3+1-dimensional. (The fourth dimension is time. While time is very different from the familiar spatial dimensions, Lorentz and Einstein showed at the beginning of the 20th century that space and time are intrinsically related.) The idea of additional spatial dimensions comes from string theory, the only self-consistent quantum theory of gravity so far. It turns out that for a consistent description of gravity, one needs more than 3+1 dimensions, and the world around us could have up to 11 spatial dimensions!

How could this be possible? The reason we do not feel these additional spatial dimensions in our everyday life (if they exist) is because they are very different from the three dimensions we are familiar with. It turns out that it is possible that our world is ‘pinned’ to a 3-dimensional sheet (a so-called ‘brane’) that is located in a higher dimensional space, To illustrate this, imagine an ant crawling on a sheet of paper in your hand. For the ant, the ‘universe’ is pretty much two-dimensional, as it cannot leave the surface of the paper. It only knows North from South and East from West, but up and down don’t make any sense as long as it has to stay on the sheet of paper. In pretty much the same way, we could be restrained to a three-dimensional world, which is in fact a part of a more complicated multi-dimensional universe!

For an ant crawling on a sheet of paper the universe is pretty much two-dimensional

These extra spatial dimensions, if they really exist, are thought to be curled-up, or “compactified”. In the example with the ant, let’s roll the sheet of paper so that it forms a cylinder. In this case, if the ant starts crawling in the direction of curvature, it will eventually come back to the same point it started from. This is an example of a compactified dimension. If the ant crawls in a direction parallel to the length of the cylinder, it would never come back to the same point (we are assuming that the paper cylinder is so long so that it never reaches the edge). This is an example of a “flat” dimension. According to string theory then, we live in a universe where our three familiar dimensions of space are “flat”, but there are additional dimensions which are curled-up very tightly so that they have an extremely small radius: 10-30 cm or less.

So why would it matter to us if the universe has more than 3 spatial dimensions, if we can not feel them? Well, in fact we could “feel” these extra dimensions through their effect on gravity. While the forces that hold our world together (electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions) are constrained to the 3+1-“flat” dimensions, the gravitational interaction always occupies the entire universe, thus allowing it to feel the effects of extra dimensions. Unfortunately, since gravity is a very weak force and since the radius of extra dimensions is tiny, it could be very hard to see any effects, unless there is some kind of mechanism that amplifies the gravitational interaction. Such a mechanism was recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, who realized that the extra dimensions can be as large as one millimeter, and still we could have missed them in our quest for the understanding of how the universe works!

If the extra dimensions were indeed so large, the laws of gravity would be modified at distances comparable to the size of the extra dimensions. So, why don’t we see this in experiments? In fact it turns out that we know very well how gravity works for large distances (Isaac Newton’s famous law that says that gravitational force between two bodies falls off as the square of distance between them). However, no one has tested how well this works for distances less than about 1 mm. It is complicated to study gravitational interactions at small distances. Objects positioned so close to each other must be very small and very light, so their gravitational interactions are also small and hard to detect. While a new generation of gravitational experiments that should be capable of probing Newton’s law at short distances (up to 1 micron) is under way, our current knowledge about gravity stops at distances of the order of 1 mm. We currently cannot say whether there are, or are not, possible extra dimensions smaller than 1 mm.

So far so interesting, but what does this have to do with particle physics and the DØ experiment at Fermilab? Actually, there is a very direct connection. Since the particles that we accelerate at Fermilab are very energetic, we can easily probe distances as small as 10-19 cm by studying the products of their collisions. However, the particles involved in these collisions are very light, so the gravitational interaction between them is very weak. Fortunately, it turns out that in the theory proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the gravitational interaction is greatly enhanced if the colliding particles have sufficiently high energy. This enhancement is due to the so-called “winding modes” of the graviton – the gravitational force carrier – around the compactified extra dimensions. If the graviton is energetic enough, it could travel ¾ “wind” its way ¾ around the compactified dimensions many times. Each time it winds around, it gives rise to a small gravitational force between the colliding particles. If the number of revolutions that the graviton makes around the curled extra dimensions is large enough, the gravitational interaction is tremendously enhanced.

Two types of the extra-dimensional effects observable at collides. Left: a graviton escapes from our 3-dimensional world in extra dimensions (Megaverse), resulting in an apparent energy non-conservation in our three-dimensional world. Right: a graviton leaves our world for a short moment of time, just to come back and decay into a pair of photons (the DØ physicists looked for that particular effect).

As the Fermilab Tevatron is the highest energy particle accelerator in the world, it is the perfect place to look for extra dimensions, since the higher the colliding particle energy is, the stronger enhancement of the gravitational interaction is expected. Physicists working at the DØ experiment have looked for the effects of gravitational interactions between pairs of electrons or photons produced in high-energy collisions. If the gravitational interaction between the two electrons or two photons is large enough, the properties of such a final state system would be modified. There will be more pairs produced at high two-body masses, and also the angular distribution of these particles will be more uniform than one expects to see if gravity is weak enough to be ignored. When DØ carefully analyzed the data they collected in 1992-1996, no such enhancements were found. The data agrees very well with the predictions from known physics processes, and the gravitational interaction does not seem to play any significant role at the energies that we are able to reach. So, no evidence for extra dimensions was found so far.

Although we have not seen extra dimensions, we were able to set rather strict limits on their size. These limits are stricter than those set by gravitational experiments, or accelerator experiments at lower energy machines, so far. These new limits also place significant constraints on Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali’s theory.

Our search for extra dimensions is not over yet. In fact, it has only just started. We are also looking for the effects of extra dimensions in collisions that produce different types of particles, such as quarks. We are also looking for events where gravitons are produced in the collisions and then leave our three-dimensional world, travelling off into one of the other dimensions. This would cause an apparent non-conservation of energy from the point of view of our three dimensional world. With the next data-taking run scheduled to start in 2001, and likely to deliver twenty times the data presently accumulated, we will have a significantly extended sensitivity to large extra dimensions. We very well might see them!

If we are not so lucky, the next generation collider, LHC, that is being built at CERN (near Geneva, Switzerland) will allow us to ultimately probe the theory of large extra dimensions and either find them or show that the idea is actually wrong. But we will have to wait six more years or so, before we learn that.

If you have any questions about this research, please contact Greg Landsberg at Brown University,

How the English Language Became the World’s Language.

English is the world's leading international language. It is the principal language spoken in Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and some other countries such as Uganda and Botswana. About 320 million people speak English as their first language - about the same number as Spanish, but less than Mandarin Chinese or Hindi.

The total number of English speakers in the world is estimated to be about 460 million - second only to Mandarin Chinese.

English is the main second language in India, South Africa and many parts of Africa and Asia. But - more and more - it is also the language of international commerce, of business, of diplomacy and of tourism.

But how did English reach this special position?

Mostly, it was a result of chance. Britain was the world's most active colonial nation in the 19th century, and British explorers and colonists took their language with them wherever they went. English became the official language of most of Britain's colonies. In the 20th century, America has been the world's most powerful nation - and Americans have brought the English language to other countries of the world.

The importance of American international corporations has made sure that English has become the international language of business; and Hollywood and the music industry have made sure that it has become the principal language for the media and showbiz. But other factors have helped with the international development of English too.

Over a thousand years ago, when the roots of modern Europe were being formed, western Europe was divided into three sections: in the East there were people who spoke Slavonic languages, in the middle there were people speaking Germanic languages (including Scandinavians), and in the south and west there were people speaking "Romance" languages, derived from Latin. In the far west of Europe, there were also people speaking Celtic languages, such as Gaelic.

In those days, England was a Germanic country; its people spoke a variety of languages including forms of Danish and Anglo Saxon, as well as some Celtic languages. In 1066, England was conquered by the Normans, from France, who brought with them their own langage - Norman French - a Romance language.

In the centuries that followed, the old Germanic languages mixed with Norman French to produce a new language, English, which was thus rather different from other European languages. It was partly Germanic (particularly the grammar and structures), partly Romance (a lot of thevocabulary). The Celtic languages remained alive in Cornwall and other parts of the British Isles.

In other words, English is at the dividing line of the two principal families of language used in Western Europe today. Most people in Europe today can recognise something of their own language in English.

For example, if you speak a Germanic language (German, Dutch, or a Scandinavian language), you do not need to have learned much (or even any) English to understand this sentence:
The man forgot to water his garden last night

Anyone who speaks French or Spanish or Italian, should be able to understand this English sentence without too much difficulty:

Indicate if you have a difficult problem. As English is half way between two different language groups, speakers of other languages have often found it easy to communicate in English, even without paying attention to grammar!

Nevertheless, grammar is important; for without grammar, no language can survive. Grammar is the cement with which the bricks of language are held together. Without it, even messages in simple English can be quite impossible to understand.
Just look at the importance of word order in these simple examples, which are entirely different in meaning:

The man the woman saw was hungry.
The man saw the woman was hungry.

Or look at the radical difference in meaning between these two sentences:

This is a story forgotten by Charles Dickens.
This is a forgotten story by Charles Dickens.

In recent times, as English has become a global language, used in different places all over the world, it has become a much richer language than in the past. It has picked up new words from other cultures, other languages, such asbungalow (from India), détente (from French), kebab (from Turkey), potato (from American Indian) - plus a lot of modern slang from America.

Today, both grammar and vocabulary are still changing. There is no such thing as "official English"; neither Britain nor the USA has anything official like the "Académie Française" to decide what is acceptable and what is not. The most accepted sources of reference are the famous English dictionaries - Websters for the USA and the Oxford English Dictionary for British English. Like other dictionaries however, they are descriptive not prescriptive - i.e. they describe language as it is used, they do not tell people what they can or should say or should not say.

Today's English is different from the English of 100 years ago; it is pronounced differently too - and no doubt, it will be even more different in 100 years' time.


Globish: How the English Language Became the World’s Language.
ENGLISH has displaced rivals to become the language of diplomacy, of business, of science, of the internet and of world culture. Many more people speak Chinese—but even they, in vast numbers, are trying to learn English. So how did it happen, and why? Robert McCrum’s entertaining book tells the story of the triumph of English—and the way in which the language is now liberated from its original owners.
The author’s knack for finding nuggets enriches what might otherwise seem a rather panoramic take on world history from Tacitus to Twitter. Take the beginnings of bilingualism in India, for example, which has stoked the growth of the biggest English-speaking middle class in the new Anglosphere. That stems from a proposal by an English historian, Thomas Macaulay, in 1835, to train a new class of English speakers: “A class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect.” At a stroke, notes Mr McCrum, English became the “language of government, education and advancement, at once a symbol of imperial rule as well as of self-improvement”. India’s English-speaking middle class is now one of the engines of that country’s development and a big asset in the race to catch up with China.
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Culture and lifestyle
English language
Language and linguistics

Bit by bit, English displaced French from diplomacy and German from science. The reason for this was America’s rise and the lasting bonds created by the British empire. But the elastic, forgiving nature of the language itself was another. English allows plenty of sub-variants, from Singlish in Singapore to Estglish in Estonia: the main words are familiar, but plenty of new ones dot the lexicon, along with idiosyncratic grammar and syntax.

Mr McCrum hovers over this point, but does not nail it. English as spoken by non-natives is different. The nuanced, idiomatic English of Britons, North Americans, Antipodeans (and Indians) can be hard to understand. Listen to a Korean businessman negotiating with a Pole in English and you will hear the difference: the language is curt, emphatic, stripped-down. Yet within “Globish”, as Mr McCrum neatly names it, hierarchies are developing. Those who can make jokes (or flirt) in Globish score over those who can’t. Expressiveness counts, in personal and professional life.

The big shift is towards a universally useful written Globish. Spellchecking and translation software mean that anyone can communicate in comprehensible written English. That skill once required mastery of orthographical codes and subtle syntax acquired over years. The English of e-mail, Twitter and text messaging is becoming far more mutually comprehensible than spoken English, which is fractured by differences in pronunciation, politeness and emphasis. Mr McCrum aptly names the new lingo “a thoroughfare for all thoughts”. Perhaps he should have written that chapter in Globish, to show its strengths—and limitations.

Source: The Economist

Top 10 Most amazing facts about the Earth

Top 10 Most amazing facts about the Earth

1. Gravity is not the same over the surface of the Earth

It turns out that in some places you will feel slightly heavier than others. A low spot can be seen just off the coast of India, while a relative high occurs in the South Pacific Ocean. The cause of these irregularities is unknown since present surface features do not appear dominant. NASA's GRACE twin satellites, launched in March 2002, are making detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field which will lead to discoveries about gravity and Earth's natural systems.

2. Atmosphere 'escapes'

Due to thermal energy, some of the molecules at the outer edge of the Earth's atmosphere have their velocity increased to the point where they can escape from the planet's gravity. This results in a slow but steady leakage of the atmosphere into space. Because unfixed hydrogen has a low molecular weight, it can achieve escape velocity more readily and it leaks into outer space at a greater rate.[61] For this reason, the Earth's current environment is oxidizing, rather than reducing, with consequences for the chemical nature of life which developed on the planet. The oxygen-rich atmosphere also preserves much of the surviving hydrogen by locking it up in water molecules.

3. The Earth is slowing down

As a result of variation in gravitational forces due to the moon, the sun and other planets in the solar system, displacements of matter in different in different parts of the planets and other excitation mechanisms, the rotational speed of the Earth about it's axis varies in time. Recently, days have been getting shorter by hundredths of a second, which implies that the angular velocity of the Earth has been increasing. The factors causing this increasing in the Earth's rotational velocity have not been determined. The rotation data shows oscillations over several different timescales. The one with the largest variation is seasonal: Earth slows down in January and February.

4. Van Allen radiation belt

The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earth's magnetic field. Apollo astronauts who traveled to the moon spent very little time in the belts but probably have a slightly higher risk of cancer during their. NASA said that they deliberately timed Apollo launches, and used lunar transfer orbits that only skirted the edge of the belt over the equator to minimize the radiation. Besides, there have been nuclear tests in space that have caused artificial radiation belts. Starfish Prime, a high altitude nuclear test created an artificial radiation belt that damaged or destroyed as many as one third of the satellites in low earth orbit at the time.

5. Moon is moving away from Earth

The reasons why have to do with tides and conservation of energy and angular momentum. Measurements have been collected now for over 25 years, and it is clear that the Moon's orbit is slowly growing larger and that the Moon is moving away from the Earth. The net result is that the Moon is receding from the Earth at about 4 centimeters a year. However, astronomers have predicted that when the Sun enters the red giant phase in around 5 billion years - during the red giant phase of the Sun - both Earth and Moon will be affected by the Sun's extended atmosphere and will aproach again. Then the Moon will swing ever closer to Earth until it reaches a point 11,470 miles (18,470 kilometers) above our planet, a point termed the Roche limit. The result: Moon will be torn to pieces and will be scattered to form a spectacular 23,000-mile-diameter (37,000-kilometer) Saturn-like ring of debris above Earth's equator.

6. Moon has a tidal effect on the atmosphere

The Moon have a tidal effect on the atmosphere as well as the oceans. Theory predicts stronger lunar pressure oscillations in the tropics but their amplitude rarely exceeds 100 microbars or 0.01 percent of the average surface pressure. Detection of such a tiny signal masked by much larger pressure variations associated with weather phenomena required the development of special statistical techniques and the accumulation of a long series of regular observations. It is common for atmospheric waves to grow in amplitude with height as the air becomes thinner. The lunar tide, however, remains weak compared to the solar tide in the upper atmosphere.

7. The Chandler wobble

The Chandler wobble is a small variation in Earth's axis of rotation, discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to 0.7 arcseconds over a period of 433 days. In other words, Earth's poles move in an irregular circle of 3 to 15 metres in diameter, in an oscillation. The cause is unknown. On 18 July 2000, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that "the principal cause of the Chandler wobble is fluctuating pressure on the bottom of the ocean, caused by temperature and salinity changes and wind-driven changes in the circulation of the oceans. However, on janauary-february 2006 scientist noticed the Chandler wobble had stopped and there was a near six week period in which a significant pause occurred. This anomaly has been of great interest in gaining a better understanding, but it is not yet known if this has or will cause any catastrophic changes in the overall rotation axis of the planet.

8. Earth electric charge

Since 1917 scientists have known that the earth's surface is charged with negative electricity, but no one knew for sure what keeps it charged. In areas of fair weather, an electric current flows between the earth and the air in a direction which would tend to dissipate the charge. It is not much of a current: only about 1,500 amperes, not much more for the entire earth than flows in a few power lines. But the electricity taken from the earth must be restored somehow or the earth's electric charge would soon drain away. An obvious guess is that thunderstorms somehow restore the lost charge, but no one had proved it. Three years ago the institution borrowed airplanes from the Air Force and began to measure electrical stirring in the still air above active thunderheads. Sure enough, the instruments showed a current moving in the opposite direction to the current in fair-weather areas. The scientists figured that all the thunderstorms going on at one time generate a net current of about 1,500 amperes, just enough to balance the drain and keep the earth's charge constant.

9. Tons of interplanetary dust reaches Earth every year

According to, about 30,000 tons of interplanetary dust reaches Earth's surface every year. Most asteroids roam around the Sun in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. The fragments of their collisions, and the dust, can be drawn toward the inner solar system and sometimes approach Earth. Dust and rocks moving fast in relation to Earth frequently slam into the atmosphere and burn up, generating shooting stars. Stuff moving more slowly relative to Earth can be captured by the planet's gravity and survive the plunge.

10. Earth's magnetic poles change places

The poles on the Earth have changed places - many times! We can tell this has happened because the magnetic moment of the rocks that make up the ocean floor have an alternating direction. Which direction they exhibit depends on which way the poles were oriented when the rocks were being formed at the mid-ocean ridge. During a reversal, which can take thousands of years, the magnetic poles start to wander away from the region around the spin poles, and eventually end up switched around. Sometimes this wandering is slow and steady, and other times it occurs in several jumps.

Earth is Changing

How is the global earth system changing?
Earth is currently in a period of warming. Over the last century, Earth's average temperature rose about 1.1°F (0.6°C). In the last two decades, the rate of our world's warming accelerated and scientists predict that the globe will continue to warm over the course of the 21st century. Is this warming trend a reason for concern? After all, our world has witnessed extreme warm periods before, such as during the time of the dinosaurs. Earth has also seen numerous ice ages on roughly 11,000-year cycles for at least the last million years. So, change is perhaps the only constant in Earth's 4.5-billion-year history.

Scientists note that there are two new and different twists to today's changing climate: (1) The globe is warming at a faster rate than it ever has before; and (2) Humans are the main reason Earth is warming. Since the industrial revolution, which began in the mid-1800s, humans have attained the magnitude of a geological force in terms of our ability change Earth's environment and impact its climate system.

Since 1900, human population doubled and then double again. Today more than 6.5 billion people inhabit our world. By burning increasing amounts of coal and oil, we drove up carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere by 30 percent. Carbon dioxide is a "greenhouse gas" that traps warmth near the surface.

Humans are also affecting Earth's climate system in other ways. For example, we transformed roughly 40 percent of Earth's habitable land surface to make way for our crop fields, cities, roads, livestock pastures, etc. We also released particulate pollution (called "aerosols") into the atmosphere. Changing the surface and introducing aerosols into the atmosphere can both increase and reduce cloud cover. Thus, in addition to driving up average global temperature, humans are also influencing rainfall and drought patterns around the world. While scientists have solid evidence of such human influence, more data and research are needed to better understand and quantify our impact on our world's climate system.

What are the primary forcings of the Earth system?
The Sun is the primary forcing of Earth's climate system. Sunlight warms our world. Sunlight drives atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Sunlight powers the process of photosynthesis that plants need to grow. Sunlight causes convection which carries warmth and water vapor up into the sky where clouds form and bring rain. In short, the Sun drives almost every aspect of our world's climate system and makes possible life as we know it.

Earth's orbit around and orientation toward the Sun change over spans of many thousands of years. In turn, these changing "orbital mechanics" force climate to change because they change where and how much sunlight reaches Earth. (Please see for more details.) Thus, changing Earth's exposure to sunlight forces climate to change. According to scientists' models of Earth's orbit and orientation toward the Sun indicate that our world should be just beginning to enter a new period of cooling -- perhaps the next ice age.

However, a new force for change has arisen: humans. After the industrial revolution, humans introduced increasing amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and changed the surface of the landscape to an extent great enough to influence climate on local and global scales. By driving up carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere (by about 30 percent), humans have increased its capacity to trap warmth near the surface.

Other important forcings of Earth's climate system include such "variables" as clouds, airborne particulate matter, and surface brightness. Each of these varying features of Earth's environment has the capacity to exceed the warming influence of greenhouse gases and cause our world to cool. For example, increased cloudiness would give more shade to the surface while reflecting more sunlight back to space. Increased airborne particles (or "aerosols") would scatter and reflect more sunlight back to space, thereby cooling the surface. Major volcanic eruptions (such as that of Mt. Pinatubo in 1992) can inject so much aerosol into the atmosphere that, as it spreads around the globe, it reduces sunlight and cause Earth to cool. Likewise, increasing the surface area of highly reflective surface types, such as ice sheets, reflects greater amounts of sunlight back to space and causes Earth to cool.

Scientists are using NASA satellites to monitor all of the aforementioned forcings of Earth's climate system to better understand how they are changing over time, and how any changes in them affect climate.

How does the Earth system respond to natural and human-induced changes?
Climate scientists have been monitoring Earth's energy budget since the 1978 launch of NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite. That mission carried a new instrument into space called the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (or ERBE), designed to measure all of the energy leaving through the top of Earth's atmosphere. All of the incoming sunlight minus all of the reflected sunlight and emitted heat is our world's energy budget. The second law of thermodynamics compels Earth's climate system to seek equilibrium so that, over the course of a year the amount of energy received equals the amount of energy lost to space. So typically the global energy budget is in balance.
But the energy budget can tip out of balance in any of three ways:
a change in the amount of incoming solar radiation. Such a change can be either or both due to a change in the Sun's energy output, or the ongoing changes in Earth's orbital mechanics.
a change in the abundance of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere. Increasing the concentration of gases like carbon dioxide and methane slows the rate at which Earth emits warmth back to space relative to the rate at which sunlight warms the surface.
a change in Earth's reflective features. Bright white objects reflect more sunlight than they absorb, whereas dark brown, dark green, and dark blue objects absorb more sunlight than they reflect. Thus, increasing the extent of reflective objects -- like clouds, aerosols, and ice sheets -- cools the Earth. Conversely, reducing the extent
While each of those types of changes can occur naturally, humans can influence only the latter two.
Earth's climate system is "sensitive" to any of the aforementioned changes at a scale of 1 watt per square meter, or greater. That amount of energy equals one Christmas tree light bulb for every 3-foot by 3-foot square of our world's surface. Climate scientists found that adding to or reducing Earth's energy budget by 1 watt per square meter is enough to cause the globe to warm or cool, depending upon the direction and magnitude of the change.

What are the consequences of change in the earth system for human civilization?
Earth's climate system has been remarkably stable over the last 20,000 years or so. Human civilization developed in that time span, and our world's average temperature warmed by about 5°C to the temperature it is today. This fact points to one of climate scientists' main concerns about global warming: the temperature is rising faster than at any other time in the history of human civilization and such rapid climate change is likely to seriously stress some populations who cannot adapt quickly enough to the changes.

There will be consequences as the globe warms, and these consequences depend upon the magnitude of the change. There will be both good and bad consequences as some populations may benefit from a warming globe even as others suffer from it. For example, farmers in some latitudes will experience a longer growing season, which may improve crop yields. However, scientists also observe for intense downpours of rain, causing floods, interspersed with longer periods of drought. So such erratic swings in the weather caused by global warming could negatively impact farmers' crop yields.

The warming will cause significant erosion of coastlines as sea level rises due to the heat-driven expansion of the ocean and the influx of freshwater runoff due to melting ice sheets and glaciers. This problem is serious because about 10 percent of the world's population lives in coastal areas level than 10 meters (30 feet) above sea level.
Arctic sea ice will continue to decline until we see a completely ice-free Arctic Ocean; some scientists say this could happen as soon as the year 2040. While this loss of Arctic ice may benefit commercial shipping due to the opening of the northwest passage, other species such as polar bears could face extinction.

A warming climate is likely to shift the ranges of certain types of invasive species (such as undesired weeds, Africanized bees, and fire ants) and infectious diseases (such as West Nile Virus, hantavirus, malaria, etc.). Access to clean freshwater will become more scarce and water resource manager predict that water rights and water management issues will become the most common reason for legal battles and military conflicts among developing nations.

There are costs associated with strategies for addressing global warming, and there are costs associated with failing to address global warming. It seems likely that the costs of failing to address global warming will be far greater in the long run (say by 2100). So any investments humans make today to slow the pace of global warming will pay dividends in the long run by helping to mitigate the problem while keeping it more economically manageable.

Since greenhouse gases are long-lived, the planet will continue to warm for the next several decades even if we stop or reduce emissions today. But the degree to which global warming will happen and change life on Earth depends upon our decisions today.

How will the Earth system change in the future?
As the world consumes ever more fossil fuel energy, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and Earth's average temperature will rise with them. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (or IPCC) estimates that Earth's average surface temperature could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century.

For most places, global warming will result in more hot days and fewer cool days, with the greatest warming happening over land. Longer, more intense heat waves will happen more often. High latitudes and generally wet places will tend to receive more rainfall, while tropical regions and generally dry places will probably receive less rain. Increases in rainfall will come in the form of bigger, wetter storms, rather than in the form of more rainy days. In between those larger storms will be longer periods of light or no rain, so the frequency and severity of drought will increase. Hurricanes will likely increase in intensity due to warmer ocean surface temperatures. So one of the most obvious impacts of global warming will be changes in both average and extreme temperature and precipitation events.

Scientists are also monitoring the great ice sheets on Greenland and West Antarctica, both of which are experiencing increasing melting trends as surface temperatures are rising faster in those parts of the world than anywhere else. Each of those ice sheets contains enough water to raise sea level by 5 meters and if our world continues to warm at the rate it is today then it is a question of when, not if, those ice sheets will collapse. Some scientists warn we could lose either, or both, of them as soon as the year 2100.

Ecosystems will shift as those plants and animals that adapt the quickest will move into new areas to compete with the currently established species. Those species that cannot adapt quickly enough will face extinction. Scientists note with increasing concern the 21st century could see one of the greatest periods of mass extinction of species in Earth's entire history. Ultimately, global warming will impact life on Earth in many ways. But the extent of the change is up to us.



Despite widespread suspicion that the world's financial system is controlled by occult secret societies, this conspiracy theory is difficult to prove. The idea that secret societies are running the world is well established. For example, the Bilderberg group is well documented as an elite society of the world's top politicians and businessmen who meet in secret outside the democratic arena, but the public do not know what is discussed or decided at Bilderberg meetings.

Nevertheless, "The Insider" can provide some insight into the spiritual beliefs held by the men who control of the world's economy, by investigating how the financial system was established, and examining the relationship between finance and religion.
The men who control the global financial system certainly do not share the same beliefs as those who follow the major contemporary monotheistic religions -Judaism, Christianity, or Islam.

According to the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible (Ex 22:25),and the Muslim Koran (2:275), charging interest (usury) on a loan is strictly forbidden by God. In the New Testament of the Bible, Christians are specifically instructed to "lend, expecting nothing in return" (Luke 6:34-35). Thus, in Christian doctrine, it is right lend money to those in need but wrong for the lender to seek profit from the loan. In the scriptures, repossessing property secured on a loan is also directly against God's commandments, especially when someone's only source of shelter is pawned (Exodus 22:26) . Apparently, God's original intention was that people should lend to eachother out of kindness, but not for greed or profit.

"If you lend money to my people, to the poor among you, you shall not deal with them as a creditor; you shall not ask interest from them." : Exodus 22:25

"Those who charge usury are in the same position as those controlled by the devil's influence. This is because they claim that usury is the same as commerce. However, God permits commerce, and prohibits usury." : Qur'an, Al-Baqarah, Sura 2:275

Yet the law in many countries permits lenders to charge interest on debts, and law enforcement agencies actively assist lenders in recovering interest owed. The modern legal system also enables money lenders to repossess people's property, for instance somebody's home, if they is unable to repay a loan within the agreed time limit. Mortgage lenders can and do legally take people's property, even if it is their only refuge and they have already paid many times the true market value of the property including interest. In a display of inexplicable hypocrisy, the same law courts which uphold and enforce usury and repossession also require people to swear oaths on the holy books in which God directly forbids these activities.

If you thought you were living in a society based on Christian principles, or Jewish or Muslim ones for that matter, then think again. We all live under the New Secular Order (Novus Ordo Seclorum) now, and this is just the beginning. The modern global finance system was created by the Knights Templar. a medieval military and religious Order which officially came to a controversial and mysterious end on Friday, 13 October 1307 when the Roman Catholic Church closed them down ,accusing their leaders of heresy and strange religious beliefs

During the era of the Crusades the Templars possessed a huge multi-national empire, and until their demise they were arguably the most powerful organisation on Earth. Could the official version of history be correct, that the entire organisation and its members had gone forever without a trace by 1312 AD? According to popular theory, the Templars went underground and formed the secret society of the Freemasons to preserve their secret tradition. Inside sources do not always openly accept the relationship between the Templars and the Freemasons , although there are obvious connections between these two groups ,and Masons make no secret of their continued interest in the Knights Templar .There is no doubt that esoteric secret societies claiming direct descent from the Templars do exists today, which apparently follow the ancient Egyptian mysteries.

"The Insider" strongly recommends further research in order to better understand this important and interesting chapter of human history, because it has exerted a major influence on the development of contemporary civilisation. The repercussions of these events reverberate strongly in world events to this day - and perhaps more deeply than most people appreciate.

In April 2002 a number of big financial companies merged to form one of the world's largest investment corporations, and on 27 September 2002 the new company was named "Isis" after the ancient Egyptian goddess. Isis Asset Management Plc confirm their appreciation of the ancient Egyptian religious tradition by incorporating the crown of Isis, a horned solar disc, in their official logo. The company's own literature does not mention the religious or historical significance of this new name in the world of global finance, and it would not be apparent except to those with prerequisite nowledge. It would be understandable why, two years into the new millennium, a huge international financial institution has chosen to be named after an ancient deity, if the men who control the company ossessed some knowledge of the ancient mysteries. Those who control the world's largest corporations and financial institutions - the high-priests of capitalism – are among the most influential and powerful men on Earth. The strategies which they employ, and the policies to which you are expected to surrender, directly disobey the fundamental laws of humanity which most religious people believe were given to our ancient ancestors by God himself. The origin of their ideology can be traced back through an ancient brotherhood which apparently survives today in the form of modern secret societies. The course of history has been set, and the future of human civilisation shall be decided, by the influence of these businessmen - the most powerful men in the world.

Watch Indian Television Channels online for free

Watch Indian Television Channels online for free

Television first came to India [named as ‘Doordarshan’ (DD) on Sept 15, 1959 as the National Television Network of India. The first telecast started on Sept 15, 1959 in New Delhi. After a gap of about 13 years, s second television station was established in Mumbai (Maharashtra) in 1972 and by 1975 there were five more television stations at Srinagar (Kashmir), Amritsar (Punjab), Calcutta (West Bengal), Madras (Tamil Nadu) and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). For many years the transmission was mainly in black & white.

In 1992, the government liberated its markets, opening them up to cable television. Five new channels belonging to the Hong Kong based STAR TV gave Indians a fresh breath of life. MTV, STAR Plus, BBC, Prime Sports and STAR Chinese Channel were the 5 channels. Zee TV was the first private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable. A few years later CNN, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel made its foray into India. Star expanded its bouquet introducing STAR World, STAR Sports, ESPN and STAR Gold.

And now India has about couple hundred channels. But I think the mostly viewed channels are Zee, Sony, Star channels. Most of those who live in India don't care whether they can watch the Indian Television channels online or not but for those who live outside India really strives to watch these Indian channels.

I have seen lot of people searching for "free indian channels online" or how to watch indian channels online or if I want to watch zee cinema online or zee tv online or Tamil TV watch online where to go?

So here I am trying to compile the list of sites where you can watch these channels online. : The site called "Live from Bangladesh". The site has list of all the famous Indian channels that you can watch online. Zee TV, Sony TV, Star One, Star Plus, Zee Cinema etc. The site doesn't require you to register. All you need is Windows Media Player 10, Real Player, VLC Media Player installed on your machine. You must be aware of Windows Media Player and Real Player. You can get VLC media player free, just google it and you will find it. Once you go to the website, you will see list of channels on the left. Click on the channel you want to see and you would see the screen with username and password information. The popup box will ask you to enter that information and you should be all set. Watch Zee Cinema Online, Watch Zee TV online, Watch Sony TV Online and enjoy.
Update on - The site now requires you to register. So be prepared for that This site used to require registration but they have changed their layout and now its just simple page with list of channels URLs. Click on the channel and a popup window will open up. Same list of channels are available here. Less than what you get from the previous site. Few sites have voice issue. The voice and video moves in fast forward motion makes it sound funny. For e.g. Sony TV & Star One. I don't believe this site has online channels but you can watch videos clippings from these Indian Channels. This site requires registration. : This site has only 5-6 channels but the quality is good and doesn't have annoying ads. It has Zee, Sony, Sony Max, Star Plus, Aaj Tak, IBN Live, Star One. I would rank this site as 2nd after Watch Star Plus Online. Beware of this website. It does provide all these channels but has lot of popup ads and could have spywares. I would go to this site as a last option.
Updates On more players - This site has Hum TV, Apna TV (Punjabi), AJJ TV, Geo TV, DOOM TV, Star Utsav, Zee Punjabi, ETC Punjabi, Zee Marathi, Zee Gujarati and many more Indian channels online for free. I think this site has the most exclusive list of Indian channels online for free. It also doesn't have too many popup ads but the UI is little bit cluttered. It also has TV shows, Cartoon shows etc available for free.

Updates: -Just got a comment from a user about this new website. is another website that streams Indian TV Channels. The site is pretty neat and it has a list of channels listed on the left and the player is on the right. You can watch Telugu channels, Zee Cinema, Zee TV, Sony, SET Max, Star Plus, Star One, Zoom India, Filmy and many more indian tv channels online for free.
I will update the list as and when I find out more players in this game. Till then enjoy watching your television online for free.When you love television as much as we do there are times when you may want promotional productsto show your support for your favorite stations. From personalized coolers to stress balls, we've got what you're looking for.

Thanks You !

Everything You Need to Know About Wikileaks

Everything You Need to Know About Wikileaks

What is Wikileaks?

Wikileaks is a self-described "not-for-profit media organization," launched in 2006 for the purposes of disseminating original documents from anonymous sources and leakers. Itswebsite says: "Wikileaks will accept restricted or censored material of political, ethical, diplomatic or historical significance. We do not accept rumor, opinion, other kinds of first hand accounts or material that is publicly available elsewhere."

More-detailed information about the history of the organization can be found on Wikipedia(with all the caveats that apply to a rapidly changing Wiki topic). Wikipedia incidentally has nothing to do with Wikileaks—both share the word "Wiki" in the title, but they're not affiliated.

Who is Julian Assange, and what is his role in the Wikileaks organization?
Julian Assange is an Australian citizen who is said to have served as the editor-in-chief and spokesperson for Wikileaks since its founding in 2006. Before that, he was described as an advisor. Sometimes he is cited as its founder. The media and popular imagination currently equate him with Wikileaks itself, with uncertain accuracy.

In 2006, Assange wrote a series of essays that have recently been tapped as an explanation of his political philosophy. A close reading of these essays shows that Assange's personal philosophy is in opposition to what he calls secrecy-based, authoritarian conspiracy governments, in which category he includes the US government and many others not conventionally thought of as authoritarian. Thus, as opposed to espousing a philosophy of radical transparency, Assange is not "about letting sunlight into the room so much as about throwing grit in the machine." For further analysis, check outAaron Bady's original blog post.

Why is Wikileaks so much in the public eye right now?
At the end of November 2010, Wikileaks began to slowly release a trove of what it says are 251,287 diplomatic cables acquired from an anonymous source. These documents came on the heels of the release of the "Collateral Murder" video in April 2010, and Afghan and Iraq War logs in July 2010 and October 2010, which totaled 466,743 documents. The combined 718,030 are said to originate from a single source, thought to be U.S. Army intelligence analyst Pfc. Bradley Manning, who was arrested in May 2010, but that's not confirmed.

Has Wikileaks released classified material in the past?
Yes, under an evolving set of models.
Berkman Fellow Ethan Zuckerman has some interesting thoughts on the development of Wikileaks and its practices over the years, which will be explained in greater detail when the Berkman Center podcast about Wikileaks is released later this week. In the meantime, here's a capsule version.

Wikileaks has moved through three phases since its founding in 2006. In its first phase, during which it released several substantial troves of documents related to Kenya in 2008, Wikileaks operated very much with a standard wiki model: the public readership could actively post and edit materials, and it had a say in the types of materials that were accepted and how such materials were vetted. The documents released in that first phase were more or less a straight dump to the Web: very little organized redacting occurred on the part of Wikileaks.

Wikileaks's second phase was exemplified with the release of the "Collateral Murder" video in April 2010. The video was a highly curated, produced and packaged political statement. It was meant to illustrate a political point of view, not merely to inform.

The third phase is the one we currently see with the release of the diplomatic cables: Wikileaks working in close conjunction with a select group of news organizations to analyze, redact and release the cables in a curated manner, rather than dumping them on the Internet or using them to illustrate a singular political point of view.

What news organizations have access to the diplomatic cables and how did they get them?
According to the Associated Press, Wikileaks gave four news organizations (Le Monde, El Pais, The Guardian and Der Spiegel) all 251,287 classified documents before anything was released to the public. The Guardian subsequently shared its trove with The New York Times.

So have all 251,287 documents been released to the public?
No. Each of the five news organizations is hosting the text of at least some of the documents in various forms with or without the relevant metadata (country of origin, classification level, reference ID). The Guardian and Der Spiegel have performed analysesof the metadata of the entire trove, excluding the body text. The Guardian's analysis is available for download from its website.

Wikileaks itself has released (as of December 7, 2010) 960 documents out of the total 251,287. The Associated Press has reported that Wikileaks is only releasing cables in coordination with the actions of the five selected news organizations. Julian Assange madesimilar statements in an interview with Guardian readers on December 3, 2010. Cables are being released daily as the five news organizations publish articles related to the content.

Is each of the five news organizations hosting all the documents that Wikileaks has released?
No. Each of the five news organizations hosts a different selection of the released documents, in different forms, which may or may not overlap. It's not clear how much they're coordinating on releasing new documents, since each appears to have a full set and normally newspapers would be eager to scoop one another.

How are the five news organizations releasing the cables?
Le Monde has created an application, developed in conjunction with Linkfluence, that hosts the searchable text of several hundred cables. The text can be searched by the sender (country of origin, office or official), date range, persons of interest cited in the docs, classification status, or any combination of the above. Only the untranslated, English text of the cables can be accessed and cut-and-paste is not available.

El Pais offers access to more than 200 cables, available in the original English or in Spanish translation, searchable by country of origin and key terms and subjects (such as "Google and China"). These searches also return El Pais articles written on a given subject, often placed ahead of the cables in the search listings. The paper also offers a "How to read a diplomatic cable" feature, explaining what all the abbreviations and technical verbiage mean in plain speak, posted on November 28, 2010.

The Guardian offers the cable data in several forms: It has performed an analysis of metadata of the entire 251,287-document trove, and made it available in several forms (spreadsheets hosted on Google Docs and in downloadable form) as well as infographics.
The Guardian also hosts at least 422 cables on its website, searchable by subject, originating country, and countries referenced.

The New York Times hosts what it calls a "selection of the documents from a cache of a quarter-million confidential American diplomatic cables that WikiLeaks intends to make public starting on November 28. The webpage goes on to say "A small number of names and passages in some of the cables have been removed by The New York Times to protect diplomats' confidential sources, to keep from compromising American intelligence efforts or to protect the privacy of ordinary citizens."
The documents are not searchable and are organized by general subject.

Who is responsible for redacting the documents? What actions did Wikileaks take to ensure that individuals were not put in danger by publication of the documents?
According to the Associated Press and statements released by Wikileaks and Julian Assange, Wikileaks is currently relying on the expertise of the five news organizations to redact the cables as they are released, and it is following their redactions as it releases the documents on its website. (This cannot be verified without examining the original documents, which we have not done—nor are we linking to them here.) According to theBBC, Julian Assange approached the U.S. State Department for guidance on redacting the documents prior to their release. One can imagine the State Department's dilemma there: assist and risk legitimating the enterprise; don't assist and risk poor redaction. In a public letter, Harold Koh, legal adviser to the Department of State, declined to assist the organization and demanded the return of the documents.

Are the documents hosted anywhere else on the Internet? What is the "insurance" file?
In late July 2010, Wikileaks is said to have posted to its Afghan War Logs site, and to a torrent site an encrypted file with "insurance" in the name. The file, which apparently can still be found on various peer-to-peer networks, is 1.4 gigabytes and is encrypted withAES256, a very strong encryption standard which would make it virtually impossible to open without the password. What is in the insurance file is not known. It has been speculatedthat it contains the unredacted cables provided by the original source(s), as well as other, previously unreleased information held by Wikileaks. There is further speculation, which has been indirectly boosted by Julian Assange, that the key to the file will be distributed in the event of either the death of Assange or the destruction of Wikileaks as a functioning organization. However, none of these things is known. All that is known for sure is that it's a really big file with heavy encryption that's already in a number of people's hands and floating around for others to get.

What happens if Wikileaks gets shut down? Can it be shut down?
It depends on what's meant by "Wikileaks" and what's meant by "shut down."
Julian Assange has made statements suggesting that if Wikileaks becomes nonfunctional as an organization, the key to the encrypted "insurance" file will be released (the key itself is not a big document and could presumably fit into Twitter messages). The actual machination of how such a "dead man's switch" would release the key is not known. If the key were released, and if the encrypted insurance file contains unredacted and unreleased secret documents, then those decrypted files would be available to many people nearly instantaneously. Wikileaks claimed in August that the insurance file had been downloaded more than 100,000 times.

Wikileaks apparently maintains a small paid staff—who and where is not exactly on a "people" page, though there used to be a physical P.O. box in Australia where documents could be sent—and is additionally supported by volunteers, speculated to be at most a few thousand. So, would it be possible for a motivated organization to disrupt its real-world infrastructure? Yes, probably. However, at this point, it is not practical to recover the information the organization has already distributed (which includes the entire trove of diplomatic cables to the press as well as whatever is in the encrypted insurance file), as well as any other undistributed information the organization might seek to release. So in terms of the recovery of leaked information, the downfall of Wikileaks as an organization would matter little.

Furthermore, there appear to be currently more than 1,000 sites mirroring Wikileaks and its content. Wikileaks has made available downloadable files containing its entire archive of released materials to date.

On a more technical level, the Wikileaks website can come under attack, and its means of collecting money can be made much more difficult.

Who controls the World Wide Web?

Who controls the World Wide Web?

The short answer: no one. The TCP/IP protocol on which all Internet protocols are based is not patented and can be implemented by anyone. It can also continue to operate without any one central system in charge.

The long answer: the whois database that ultimately determines who holds what domain name for the .com and .net domains is currently managed by Network Solutions, Inc., a division of Verisign, under contract with the umbrella organization to which the various domain name registrars belong. Although no single person or organization controls the Internet, NSI's brief experiment with redirecting all mistyped domain names to their own ads demonstrated that they do hold a great deal of practical power. This does not mean that they can do whatever they like, of course; political pressure and the threat of lawsuits led them to stop their ad-redirection policy, at least for now.

The thirteen root DNS servers that answer top-level questions about the best-known Internet domains could be said to be in control, but they do not all belong to a single organization. See my article what is DNS? for a more detailed discussion of this subject.
Internationally speaking, there is truly no one entity in charge, as each national domain (.uk, .fr, etc.) has its own registrars. Certainly the global physical network itself does not belong to any one company.

The standards that determine the behavior of web browsers and web servers are set, often after the fact, by the Internet Engineering Task Force and the W3C Consortium, both of which are made up of many representatives from many companies. Again, no one organization is in control.

An argument can also be made that Microsoft has some control, since the Internet Explorer web browser is currently used by a large majority of all users. However, that majority has recently shrunk significantly with the increased popularity of the Firefox and Safari browsers, demonstrating that Internet Explorer's popularity is based at least in part on its perceived quality and not exclusively on Microsoft's ability to supply it with the operating system.

The case has also been made that Google has control, because it is the most popular search engine, and for a period of time several other "competing" search engines actually relied on Google for their results. However, Yahoo has stopped using Google in this way, and Microsoft has announced its intention to compete seriously with Google.

The New World Order (NWO)

The New World Order (NWO)


There is a worldwide conspiracy being orchestrated by an extremely powerful and influential group of genetically-related individuals (at least at the highest echelons) which include many of the world's wealthiest people, top political leaders, and corporate elite, as well as members of the so-called Black Nobility of Europe (dominated by the British Crown) whose goal is to create a One World (fascist) Government, stripped of nationalistic and regional boundaries, that is obedient to their agenda. Their intention is to effect complete and total control over every human being on the planet and to dramatically reduce the world's population by 5.5 Billion people. While the name New World Order is a term frequently used today when referring to this group, it's more useful to identify the principal organizations, institutions, and individuals who make up this vast interlocking spiderweb of elite conspirators.

The Illuminati is the oldest term commonly used to refer to the 13 bloodline families (and their offshoots) that make up a major portion of this controlling elite. Most members of the Illuminati are also members in the highest ranks of numerous secretive and occult societies which in many cases extend straight back into the ancient world. The upper levels of the tightly compartmentalized (need-to-know-basis) Illuminati structural pyramid include planning committees and organizations that the public has little or no knowledge of. The upper levels of the Illuminati pyramid include secretive committees with names such as: theCouncil of 3, the Council of 5, the Council of 7, the Council of 9, the Council of 13, the Council of 33, the Grand Druid Council, the Committee of 300 (also called the "Olympians") and the Committee of 500 among others.

In 1992, Dr John Coleman published Conspirators' Hierarchy: The Story of the Committee of 300. With laudable scholarship and meticulous research, Dr Coleman identifies the players and carefully details the Illuminati agenda of worldwide domination and control. On page 161 of the Conspirators Hierarchy, Dr Coleman accurately summarizes the intent and purpose of the Committee of 300 as follows:

"A One World Government and one-unit monetary system, under permanent non-elected hereditary oligarchists who self-select from among their numbers in the form of a feudal system as it was in the Middle Ages. In this One World entity, population will be limited by restrictions on the number of children per family, diseases, wars, famines, until 1 billion people who are useful to the ruling class, in areas which will be strictly and clearly defined, remain as the total world population.

There will be no middle class, only rulers and the servants. All laws will be uniform under a legal system of world courts practicing the same unified code of laws, backed up by a One World Government police force and a One World unified military to enforce laws in all former countries where no national boundaries shall exist. The system will be on the basis of a welfare state; those who are obedient and subservient to the One World Government will be rewarded with the means to live; those who are rebellious will simple be starved to death or be declared outlaws, thus a target for anyone who wishes to kill them. Privately owned firearms or weapons of any kind will be prohibited."

The sheer magnitude and complex web of deceit surrounding the individuals and organizations involved in this conspiracy is mind boggling, even for the most astute among us. Most people react with disbelief and skepticism towards the topic, unaware that they have been conditioned (brainwashed) to react with skepticism by institutional and media influences that were created by the Mother of All mind control organizations: The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London. Author and de-programmer Fritz Springmeier (The Top 13 Illuminati Bloodlines ) says that most people have built in "slides" that short circuit the mind's critical examination process when it comes to certain sensitive topics. "Slides", Springmeier reports, is a CIA term for a conditioned type of response which dead ends a person's thinking and terminates debate or examination of the topic at hand. For example, the mention of the word "conspiracy" often solicits a slide response with many people. (Springmeier has co-authored three books on trauma-based programming which detail how the Illuminati employs highly tuned and extrememly sophisticated Mind Control (MC) training programs that begin the programming process while the intended victim is stillwithin the womb. Mind Control is a much greater problem than most people realize.

According to Cisco Wheeler, a former Illuminati mind control programmer, there are 10 million people who have been programmed as mind controlled slaves using trauma-based MC programs with names like Monarch and MK Ultra. The newer, non-trauma, electronic means of MC programming that grew out of theMontauk Project, may include millions more. Al Bielek, who played a principle role in the development of the Montauk Project, said that there likely 10 million victims of Montauk style mind control programming worldwide, the majority located in the USA. He also said that there are covert Montauk Programming 'Centers' in every major city in the U.S. )

What most Americans believe to be "Public Opinion" is in reality carefully crafted and scripted propaganda designed to elicit a desired behavioral response from the public. Public opinion polls are reallytaken with the intent of gauging the public's acceptance of the Illuminati's planned programs. A strong showing in the polls tells the Illuminati that the programing is "taking", while a poor showing tells the NWO manipulators that they have to recast or "tweak" the programming until the desired response is achieved. While the thrust and content of the propaganda is decided at Tavistock, implementation of the propaganda is executed in the United States by well over 200 'think tanks' such as the Rand Corporation and the Brookings Institute which are overseen and directed by the top NWO mind control organization in the United States, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo Park, California.

The NWO global conspirators manifest their agenda through the skillful manipulation of human emotions, especially fear. In the past centuries, they have repeatedly utilized a contrivance that NWO researcher and author David Icke has characterized in his latest book, The Biggest Secret, as Problem, Reaction, and Solution.

The technique is as follows: Illuminati strategists create the Problem- by funding , assembling, and training an "opposition" group to stimulate turmoil in an established political power (sovereign country, region, continent, etc.) that they wish to impinge upon and thus create opposing factions in a conflict that the Illuminati themselves maneuvered into existence. In recent decades, so called "opposition" groups are usually identified in the media as 'freedom fighters' or 'liberators' (recently the KLA-Kosovo Liberation Army).

At the same time, the leader of the established political power where the conflict is being orchestrated is demonized and, on cue, referred to as 'another Hitler' (take your pick: Saddam Hussein, Milosevic, Kadaffi, etc.). The 'freedom fighters' are not infrequently assembled from a local criminal element (i.e. KLA, drug traffickers). In the spirit of true Machiavellian deceit, the same NWO strategists are equally involved in covertly arming and advising the leader of the established power as well (the Illuminati always profits from any armed conflict by loaning money, arming, and supplying all parties involved in a war).

The conflict is drawn to the world stage by the controlled media outlets with a barrage of photos and video tape reports of horrific and bloody atrocities suffered by innocent civilians. The cry goes up "Something has to be done!" And That is the desired Reaction (note: the same technique is presently being used to bring about gun control in the United States).
The NWO puppeteers then provide the Solution by sending in UN 'Peace Keepers' (Bosnia) or a UN 'Coalition Force' (Gulf War) or NATO Bombers and then ground troops (Kosovo). Once installed, the 'peace keepers' never leave (Bosnia, Kosovo). The idea is to have NWO controlled ground troops in all major countries or strategic areas where significant resistance to the New World Order takeover is likely to be encountered.

East Timor, Indosnesia. (9/14/99) Virtually , the same strategy used to occupy Kosovo with UN/NATO troops was applied by the NWO manipulators to take military control of East Timor. Once again, the same morality play is trotted out for public consumption: the local evil and demonic Indonesian Army trained militias responsible for the slaughter of innocent civilians following the August 30 vote for Independence (from Indonesian control), must be stopped at all costs. This time, Australia (to keep up the appearance of an 'international' humantarian effort) will lead the charge with 'peacekeeping' troops. Of course, it didn't take long for Madeline Albright to announce that US 'support assets' will be part of the "UN Peacekeeping Team". In a front page story in the LA Times (9/13/99), Mike Jendrzejczyk ofHuman Rights Watch (an Illuminati front group) in Washington DC said that it's "crucial" that "peacekeepers have the authority to disarm militia forces and any Indonesian soldiers actively working with them". ]

The local, sovereign military force is either defeated (i.e. Yugoslavia) or, as in the case of the United States itself, replaced by foreign UN "Partnership For Peace" (PFP) troops who take over the jobs of US soldiers who have been sent overseas on 'peacekeeping' missions. In addition to being killed in ground conflicts on foreign soil, US military forces will likely be reduced in the next few years through disease induced attrition (i.e. from mandatory Anthrax Vaccinations required of all US military personnel). These vaccinations will, in all probability, eventually produce the symptoms of the so-called Gulf War Illness, which was acquired by a certain percentage of Gulf War soldiers who were given a "special" anthrax vaccine (intended by the Illuminati/CIA as a test run to ascertain how quickly (and fatally) the disease would progress with a substantial population of healthy young men and women).

The corporate portion of the NWO pyramid seems to be dominated by international bankers and the big pharmaceutical cartels, as well as other major multinational
corporations. The Royal Family of England, namely Queen Elizabeth II and the House of Windsor, (who are, in fact, descendants of the German arm of European Royalty -the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha family-changed the name to Windsor in 1914 ), are high level players, along with the British oligarchy which controls the upper strata of the Illuminati. The decision making Illuminati nerve centers of this effort are in the London (especially the City of London), Basel Switzerland, and Brussels (NATO headquarters).

The United Nations, along with all the agencies working under the UN umbrella, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), are full time players in this scheme. Similarly, NATO is a military tool of the NWO.

The leaders of all major industrial countries like the United States,
England, Germany, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, etc. (E.g. members of the "G7/G8" ) are active and fully cooperative participants in this conspiracy. In this century, the degree of control exerted by the Illuminati has advanced to the point that only certain hand-picked individuals, who are groomed and selected by the Illuminati are eveneligible to become the prime minister or president of countries like England, Germany, or The United States. It didn't matter whether Bill Clinton or Bob Dole won the Presidency in 1996, the results would have been the same (except maybe for Zipper Gate ). Both men are playing on the same team for the same ball club. Anyone who isn't a team player is taken out: i.e.President Kennedy, Ali Bhutto (Pakistan)and Aldo Moro (Italy). More recently, Admiral Borda and William Colby were also killed because they were either unwilling to go along with the conspiracy to destroy America, weren't cooperating in some capacity, or were attempting to expose/ thwart the Takeover agenda.

Most of the major wars, political upheavals, and economic depression/recessions of the past 100 years (and earlier) were carefully planned and instigated by the machinations of these elites. They includeThe Spanish-American War (1898), World War I and World War II; TheGreat Depression; the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917; the Rise of Nazi Germany; the Korean War; the Vietnam War; the1989-91"fall" of Soviet Communism, the 1991 Gulf War; and the recent War in Kosovo. Even the French Revolution was an orchestrated into existence by the Barvaian Illuminati and the House of Rothchild.

FEMA In America, the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) was created in 1979 under Presidential Memorandum 32 authored for President Carter by Prof. Samuel P. Huntington, a Harvard professor and former FEMA Advisory Board chairman. Huntington wrote the Seminal Peace for the Trilateral Commission in the mid 70's, in which he criticized democracy and economic development as outdated ideas. As co-author of another report prepared for the Trilateral Commissiosn, The Crisis of Democracy, Huntington wrote:
"We have come to recognize that there are potential desirable limits to economic growth. There are also potentially desirable limits to the indefinite extension of political democracy. A government which lacks authority will have little ability short of cataclysmic crisis to impose on its people the sacrifices which may be necessary."

Huntington's ideas were rewritten into National Security Decision Directive #47 (NSDD47), which was enacted in July 1982 by President Reagan. Treated as a passing footnote by the media, this law identified legitimate areas to be upgraded to maintain national defense, but it also laid the groundwork for Emergency Mobilization Preparedness, a plan under which existing socio/economic regulations or other legal constraints would be waived in the event of a national emergency. This plan was further strengthened in Public Law 101-647, signed by President Bush in November 1990.What it boils down to is this: in the event that the President declares a national emergency, for any reason (from major earthquakes to increased international tensions or economic /financial crisis of any stripe), FEMA can then, at their discretion, implement Executive Orders 10995 through 11005. These Executive Orders permit a takeover by FEMA of local, state, and national governments and the suspension of constitutional guarantees. FEMA will have the authority to exert any sort of control that it deems necessary upon the American public. A trained National Police Force, formally referred to by the name of Multi Jurisdictional Task Force (MJTF), wearing black uniforms and composed of:

1. specially selected US military personnel 2. foreign military units carrying United Nations ID cards, and 3. specially trained existing police groups from larger metropolitan American cities.
These members of the MJTF will implement and enforce martial law under the direction and controlof FEMA. The President and Congress are out of the loop.

FEMA is the Trojan Horse by which the New World Order will implement overt, police-state control over the American populace.

Indian inventions and discoveries

List of Indian inventions and discoveries

This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions made in India[fn 1] throughout its cultural and technological history, during which architecture, astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, logic, mathematics, metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars. During recent times science and technology in the Republic of India has also focused on automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as space, polar, and nuclear sciences.

Bangles on display in India.
Bangle: Bangles—made from shell, copper, bronze, gold, agate, chalcedony etc.—have been excavated from multiple archaeological sites throughout India.[1] A figurine of a dancing girl—wearing bangles on her left arm— has been excavated from Mohenjo-daro (2600 BCE).[2] Other early examples of bangles in India include copper samples from the excavations at Mahurjhari—soon followed by the decorated bangles belonging to the Mauryan empire (322–185 BCE) and the gold bangle samples from the historic site of Taxila (6th century BCE).[1] Decorated shell bangles have also been excavated from multiple Mauryan sites.[1] Other features included copper rivets and gold-leaf inlay in some cases.[1]
Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance: Invented jointly by Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar and K.N. Mathur in 1928, the so-called 'Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance' was a modern instrument used for measuring various magnetic properties.[3] The first appearance of this instrument in Europe was at a Royal Society exhibition in London, where it was later marketed by British firm Messers Adam Hilger and Co, London.[3]
Bounce lighting: Invented by cinematographer Subrata Mitra for The Apu Trilogy, three Bengali films by parallel Indian film director Satyajit Ray from 1955 to 1959.[4][5]
Bow drill: The bow drill appeared in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BCE.[6] It was used to drill holes into lapis lazuli and cornelian and was made of green jasper.[6] Similar drills were found in other parts of the Indus Valley Civilization and Iran one millennium later.[6]
Button: Buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE.[7] Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pieced into them so that they could attached to clothing by using a thread.[7] Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley. It is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."[8]
Calico: Calico had originated in India by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature by the 12th when writer Hemacandra mentioned calico fabric prints done in a lotus design.[9] The Indian textile merchants traded in calico with the Africans by the 15th century and calico fabrics from Gujarat appeared in Egypt.[9] Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards.[9] Within India, calico originated in Calicut.[9]
Carding, devices for: Historian of science Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India.[10] The earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India (2nd century CE).[10] These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki would loosen the texture of the fiber by the means of a vibrating string.[10]

Map showing origin and diffusion of chess from India to Asia, Africa, andEurope, and the changes in the native names of the game in corresponding places and time.
Chaturanga and Shatranj: The precursors of chess originated in India during the Gupta dynasty (c. 280 - 550 CE).[11][12][13][14] Both the Persians and Arabs ascribe the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians.[13][15][16] The words for "chess" in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively — terms derived from caturaṅga inSanskrit,[17][18] which literally means an army of four divisions or four corps.[19][20] Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape.[21] This game was introduced to the Near East from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility.[19] Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.[21] Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia, the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire.[20][22] Muslims carried Shatranj to North Africa, Sicily, and Spain by the 10th century where it took its final modern form of chess.[21]
Chintz: The origin of Chintz is from the printed all cotton fabric of calico in India.[23] The origin of the word chintz itself is from the Hindi language word चित्र् (chitr) , which means a spot.[23][24]
Coherer, iron and mercury: In 1899, the Bengali physicist Jagdish Chandra Bose announced the development of an "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London.[25] He also later receivedU.S. Patent 755,840, "Detector for electrical disturbances" (1904), for a specific electromagnetic receiver.
Cockfighting: Cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization by 2000 BC.[26] The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008)—on the origins of cockfighting—holds: "The game fowl is probably the nearest to the Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), from which all domestic chickens are believed to be descended...The sport was popular in ancient times in India, China, Persia, and other Eastern countries and was introduced into Greece in the time of Themistocles (c. 524–460 BCE). The sport spread throughout Asia Minor and Sicily. For a long time the Romans affected to despise this "Greek diversion," but they ended up adopting it so enthusiastically that the agricultural writer Columella (1st century AD) complained that its devotees often spent their whole patrimony in betting at the side of the pit."[27]
Corrosion-resistant iron: The first corrosion-resistant iron was used to erect the Iron pillar of Delhi, which has withstood corrosion for over 1,600 years.[28]
Cotton Gin: The Ajanta caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century CE.[29] This cotton gin was used in India until innovations were made in form of foot powered gins.[29] The cotton gin was invented in India as a mechanical device known as charkhi, more technically the "wooden-worm-worked roller". This mechanical device was, in some parts of India, driven by water power.[10]
Crescograph: The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was invented in the early 20th century by the Bengali scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose.[30][31]
Crucible steel: Perhaps as early as 300 BCE—although certainly by 200 CE—high quality steel was being produced in southern India also by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique.[32] In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon.[32] The first crucible steel was the wootz steel that originated in India before the beginning of the common era.[33] Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.[34][35]
Dental drill, and dental surgery: The Indus Valley Civilization has yielded evidence of dentistry being practiced as far back as 7000 BCE.[36] This earliest form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead craftsmen.[37] The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.[38]
Dice: The die is attributed to India by some accounts.[39][40][41] Some of the earliest archaeological evidence of oblong dice have been found in Harrapan sites such asKalibangan, Lothal, Ropar, Alamgirpur, Desalpur and surrounding territories, some dating back to the third millennium BCE, which were used for gambling.[42][43][44] The oblong or cubical dice (akṣa) is the precursor of the more primitive vibhīṣaka—small, hard nuts drawn randomly to obtain factors of a certain integer.[45] Dicing is believed to have later spread westwards to Persia, influencing Persian board games.[46] Early references to dicing can be found in the Ṛg Veda (c. early 2nd millennium BCE)[44][47][48] as well as the newer Atharva Veda (c. late 2nd millennium ~ early 1st millennium BCE).[42][49]
Dike: Dikes were known to be widely used in the Indus valley civilization,[50][51] which are believed to be the first dikes in the world,[51] built as early as the 1st millennium BCE.[51] This was the same period when the dockyard at Lothal was in operation.[51] The use of dikes became known from then onwards.[51]
Dock (maritime): The world's first dock at Lothal (2400 BCE) was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt.[52] Modern oceanographers have observed that the Harappans must have possessed great knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering.[52] This was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships.[52] It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks.[53] This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary.[53] The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south arms of average 21.8 metres (71.5 ft), and east-west arms of 37 metres (121 ft).[53]

Cotton being dyed manually in contemporary India.
Dyeing: Early evidence of dyeing comes from India where a piece of cotton dyed with a vegetable dye has been recovered from the archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro (3rd millennium BCE).[54] The dye used in this case was madder, which, along with other dyes—such as Indigo—was introduced to other regions through trade.[54] Contact with Alexander the Great, who had successfully used dyeing for military camouflage, may have further helped aid the spread of dyeing from India.[54] Within India these dyes have found consistent mention in Indian literature and in some cases have been excavated in archaeological findings.[54] Dyes in India were a commodity of both Internal trade and exports.[54] Indian exports of Indigo alone reached nearly 15, 097, 622 pounds in 1887-88 with the principle markets being the United Kingdom, the United States of America, France and Egypt.[54]
Furnace: The earliest furnace was excavated at Balakot, a site of the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to its mature phase (c. 2500-1900 BCE). The furnace was most likely used for the manufacturing of ceramic objects.[55]
Hookah: The invention of the modern Hookah is attributed to Hakim Abul Fateh Gilani (c. 1580 CE), who was a physician in the court of Mughal emperor Akbar (1542 - 1605 CE).[56][57][58] Following the European introduction of tobacco to India, Gilani raised concerns after smoking tobacco became popular among Indian noblemen, and subsequently envisaged a system which allowed smoke to be passed through water in order to be 'purified'.[57] Gilani invented the Hookah after Asad Beg, then ambassador of Bijapur, encouraged Akbar to take up smoking.[57] Following popularity among noblemen, this new device for smoking soon became a status symbol for the Indian affluent.[57]
Hospital: Brahmanic hospitals were established in what is now Sri Lanka as early as 431 BCE.[59] The Indian emperor Ashoka (ruled from 273 BCE to 232 BCE) himself established a chain of hospitals throughout the Mauryan empire (322–185 BCE) by 230 BCE.[59] One of the edicts of Ashoka (272—231 BCE) reads: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."[60]
Incense clock: Although popularly associated with China the incense clock is believed to have originated in India, at least in its fundamental form if not function.[61][62]Early incense clocks found in China between the 6th and 8th century CE—the period it appeared in China all seem to have Devanāgarī carvings on them instead of Chinese seal characters.[61][62] Incense itself was introduced to China from India in the early centuries CE, along with the spread of Buddhism by travelling monks.[63][64][65] Edward Schafer asserts that incense clocks were probably an Indian invention, transmitted to China, which explains the Devanāgarī inscriptions on early incense clocks found in China.[61] Silvio Bedini on the other hand asserts that incense clocks were derived in part from incense seals mentioned in Tantric Buddhistscriptures, which first came to light in China after those scriptures from India were translated into Chinese, but holds that the time-telling function of the seal was incorporated by the Chinese.[62]
India ink, carbonaceous pigment for: The source of the carbon pigment used in India ink was India.[66][67] In India, the carbon black from which India ink is produced is obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances.[67][68] Ink itself has been used in India since at least the 4th century BC.[69] Masi, an early ink in India was an admixture of several chemical components.[69] Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Xinjiang.[70] The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in ancient South India.[71] Several Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink.[72]
Indian clubs: The Indian club—which appeared in Europe during the 18th century—was used long by India's native soldiery before its introduction to Europe.[73] During the British Raj the British officers in India performed calisthenic exercises with clubs to keep in for physical conditioning.[73] From Britain the use of club swinging spread to the rest of the world.[73]

Laser Interferometer for measuringrefractive index invented by M.V.R.K. Murty.
Interferometer, lateral shear: Invented by M.V.R.K. Murty, a Lateral Shear Interferometer utilizes a laser source for measuring refractive index.[74] The principle of the Murty Interferometer is: 'when a parallel plate of glass receives a collimated laser beam at an oblique angle, the reflections from front and back of the plate are always separated by a certain amount of shear depending on thickness and refractive index of the glass plate and angle of incidence of the beam. An interference fringe of uniform intensity is obtained in the common area of two laterally sheared beams. When a wedged plate of a few arc seconds instead of parallel plates is used as a shearing plate such as its apex of wedge lies in the horizontal plane, a set of straight fringes parallel to the horizontal direction are formed for the well collimated laser beam. The interferometer is insensitive to vibrations and therefore the fringes are stable even without isolation table.'[75] The schematic diagram for measuring refractive index of liquids or solids by using the Murty Interferometer is given in this figure.[75] The laser interferometer did not require any optical path compensation.[74]
Iron: Iron was developed in the Vedic period of India, around the same time as, but independently of, Anatolia and theCaucasus. Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila and Lahuradewa in present day Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period between 1800 BC—1200 BC.[76] Early iron objects found in India can be dated to 1400 BC by employing the method of radiocarbon dating. Spikes, knives, daggers, arrow-heads, bowls, spoons, saucepans, axes, chisels, tongs, door fittings etc. ranging from 600 BC to 200 BC have been discovered from several archaeological sites of India.[77] Some scholars believe that by the early 13th century BC, iron smelting was practiced on a bigger scale in India, suggesting that the date the technology's inception may be placed earlier.[76] In Southern India (present day Mysore) iron appeared as early as 11th to 12th centuries BC; these developments were too early for any significant close contact with the northwest of the country.[78]
Iron pillar: The first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi, erected at the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413 CE).[79]
Kabaddi: The game of kabaddi originated in India during prehistory.[80] Suggestions on how it evolved into the modern form range from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self defense but most authorities agree that the game existed in some form or the other in India during the period between 1500-400 BCE.[80]
Ludo: Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century.[81] The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.[81] This game was played by the Mughal emperors of India; a notable example being that of Akbar, who played living Pachisi using girls from his harem.[81][82] A variant of this game, called Ludo, made its way to England during the British Raj.[81]
Muslin: The fabric was named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, Mosul, in what is now Iraq, but the fabric actually originated from Dhaka in what is nowBangladesh.[83][84] In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes note of the material's origin in Bengal (known as Ruhml in Arabic).[84]
Oil spill, micro organisms as treatment of: Indian (Bengali) inventor and microbiologist Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty created a species of man made micro organism to break down crude oil. In a highly controversial decision taken by the United States Supreme Court, Chakrabarty's discovery was granted a patent even though it was a living species. The court ruling decreed that Chakrabarty's discovery was "not nature's handiwork, but his own..." The inventor Chakrabarty secured his patent in 1980 (see Diamond v. Chakrabarty).[85][86]
Optical fibre: Narinder Singh Kapany is often described as the "father of fibre optics", for inventing the glass fibre with cladding during the early 1950s.[87][88]
Oven: The earliest ovens were excavated at Balakot, a site of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ovens date back to the civilization's mature phase (c. 2500-1900 BCE).[55]

The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th-1st century BCE). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
Pajamas: Pajamas in the original form were invented in India, which was for outdoor use and was reinterpreted by the British to be sleepware.[89][90] The use of this garment spread throughout the world with increasing globalization.[89][90]
Palampore: पालमपुर् (Hindi language) of Indian origin[91] was imported to the western world—notable England and Colonial america—from India.[92][93] In 17th century England these hand painted cotton fabrics influenced native crewel work design.[92] Shipping vessels from India also took palampore to colonial America, where it was used in quilting.[93]
Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE.[94] The system of punishment by deforming a miscreant's body may have led to an increase in demand for this practice.[94] The surgeon Sushruta contributed mainly to the field of Plastic and Cataract surgery.[95] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE).[96] These translated Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermidiateries.[96] In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[96]
Plough, animal-drawn: The earliest archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.[97]
Prayer flags: The Buddhist sūtras, written on cloth in India, were transmitted to other regions of the world.[98] These sutras, written on banners, were the origin of prayer flags.[98] Legend ascribes the origin of the prayer flag to the Shakyamuni Buddha, whose prayers were written on battle flags used by the devas against their adversaries, the asuras.[99] The legend may have given the Indian bhikku a reason for carrying the 'heavenly' banner as a way of signyfying his commitment to ahimsa.[100] This knowledge was carried into Tibet by 800 CE, and the actual flags were introduced no later than 1040 CE, where they were further modified.[100] The Indian monk Atisha(980-1054 CE) introduced the Indian practice of printing on cloth prayer flags to Tibet.[99]
Prefabricated home and movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar the Great. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579.[101]
Private bathroom and Toilet: By 2800 BCE, private bathrooms, located on the ground floor, were found in nearly all the houses of the Indus Valley Civilization.[102] The pottery pipes in walls allowed drainage of water and there was, in some case, provision of a crib for sitting.[102] The Indus Valley Civilization had some of the most advanced private lavatories in the world.[102] "Western-style" toilets were made from bricks using toilet seats made of wood on top.[102] The waste was then transmitted to drainage systems.[102]

Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet) in Wayang Purwa type, depicting fivePandava, from left to right: Bhima,Arjuna, Yudhishtira, Nakula, andSahadeva (Museum Indonesia, Jakarta). Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee (2006) trace the origins of puppetry in India to the Indus Civilization.
Puppets and Puppetry: Evidence of puppetry comes from the excavations at the Indus Valley.[103] Archaeologists have unearthed terracotta dolls with detachable heads capable of manipulation by a string dating to 2500 BCE.[103] Other excavations include terracotta animals which could be manipulated up and down a stick—-archiving minimum animation in both cases.[103] The epic Mahabharata; Tamil literature from the Sangam Era, and various literary works dating from the late centuries BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era—including Ashokan edicts—describe puppets.[104] Works like the Natya Shastra and the Kamasutra elaborate on puppetry in some detail.[105] The Javanese Wayang theater was influenced by Indian traditions.[106] Europeans developed puppetry as a result of extensive contact with the Eastern World.[107]
Reservoir, artificial: Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including the artificial reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE.[108] Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization around 4500 BCE.[109] The size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew as a result of this innovation, which eventually lead to more planned settlements which further made use of drainage and sewers.[109]
Rocket artillery, iron-cased and metal-cylinder: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed by Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during theAnglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, and were soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.[110][111]
Ruler: Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization period prior to 1500 BCE.[112] Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimeters.[112] Ian Whitelaw (2007) holds that 'The Mohenjo-Daro ruler is divided into units corresponding to 1.32 inches (33.5 mm) and these are marked out in decimal subdivisions with amazing accuracy—to within 0.005 of an inch. Ancient bricks found throughout the region have dimensions that correspond to these units.'[113] Shigeo Iwata (2008) further writes 'The minimum division of graduation found in the segment of an ivory-made linear measure excavated in Lothal was 1.79 mm (that corresponds to 1/940 of a fathom), while that of the fragment of a shell-made one from Mohenjo-daro was 6.72 mm (1/250 of a fathom), and that of bronze-made one from Harapa was 9.33 mm (1/180 of a fathom).'[114] The weights and measures of the Indus civilization also reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified.[114]
Seamless celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, it was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in between 1589 and 1590 CE, and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire.[115][116] Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology.[116] These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax casting in order to produce these globes.[116]
Sewage collection and disposal systems: Large-scale sanitary sewer systems were in place in the Indus Valley by 2700 BCE.[102] The drains were 7–10 feet wide and 2 feet (0.61 m) below ground level.[102] The sewage was then led into cesspools, built at the intersection of two drains, which had stairs leading to them for periodic cleaning.[102] Plumbing using earthenware plumbing pipes with broad flanges for easy joining with asphalt to stop leaks was in place by 2700 BCE.[102]
Shampoo: Shampoo originally meant head massage in several North Indian languages. Both the word and the concept were introduced to Britain from colonial India,[102]by the Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed.[117]
Snakes and ladders: Snakes and ladders originated in India as a game based on morality.[118] This game made its way to England, and was eventually introduced in the United States of America by game-pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.[118]
Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro.[119] The three features of Indian stepwells are evident from one particular site, abandoned by 2500 BCE, which combines a bathing pool, steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure.[119] The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the Buddhists and the Jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture.[119] Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism.[119] Rock-cut step wells in India date from 200-400 CE.[120] Subsequently the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed.[120]
Stupa: The origin of the stupa can be traced to 3rd century BCE India.[121] It was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[121] The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it evolved into the pagoda, a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.[121]
Swimming pool: The "great bath" at the site of Mohenjo-daro was most likely dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 meters, is lined with bricks and was covered with a tar-based sealant.[122]
Toe stirrup: The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in as early as 500 BCE[123] or perhaps by 200 BCE according to other sources.[124][125] This ancient stirrup consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather.[125]Such a configuration made it suitable for the warm climate of most of India where people used to ride horses barefoot.[125] A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else.[126] Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi, Mathura and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century BCE figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths.[127][128][129] Sir John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world".[129] In the 1st century CE horse riders in northern India, where winters are sometimes long and cold, were recorded to have their booted feet attached to hooked stirrups.[124] However the form, the conception of the primitive Indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today.[125][128]
Universal Serial Bus: Computer architect Ajay Bhatt was the co-inventor of the Universal Serial Bus (USB).[130][131][132]

Computer-aided reconstruction of Harappan coastal settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni on the westernmost outreaches of the civilization
Urban planning: Remains of major Indus cities (mature period c. 2600–1900 BCE) display distinct characteristics of urban planning such as streets crossing each other at right angles, well arranged rows of structures as well as neatly built, covered drainage and sewage lines, complete with maintenance sumps, running along backlanes.[133][134] Drains in the ancient maritime city of Lothal for example, designed to be able to take out the city’s entire domestic sewage and storm-water were mostly underground, and built to high levels of uniformity, whereby the slopes never exceed 1 in 10,000.[134][135]In terms of segregation, Lothal was divided into three districts: the citadel, the lower town and the dockyard, which were further divided into smaller administration centres, all having well planned infrastructure such as wide, straight roads along neatly arranged buildings to suit their purpose.[134][136] Such planning is also evident from remains of Mohenjo-Daro, a city to the north-west of Lothal, which appears to have been built adhering to a complex level of city grid planning.[133][137] This leads archaeologists to the conclusion that these cities were conceived entirely if not to a large extent before they were built—the earliest known manifestation of urban planning.[133][138][139]
Wind-powered device: The ancient Sinhalese used the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BC. Evidence has been found in Anuradhapura and other cities around Sri Lanka.[140]
Wootz steel: Wootz originated in India before the beginning of the common era.[33] Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe, China, the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it became known as Damascus steel. Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.[34][35]



Jute plants Corchorus olitorius andCorchorus capsularis cultivated first in India.
Cashmere wool: The fiber is also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in the handmade shawls of Kashmir, India.[141]The woolen shawls made from wool in Kashmir region of India find written mention between 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD.[142] However, the founder of the cashmere wool industry is traditionally held to be the 15th century ruler of Kashmir,Zayn-ul-Abidin, who employed weavers from Central Asia.[142]
Cotton: Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization by the 5th millennium BCE - 4th millennium BCE.[143] The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be practiced till the modern Industrialization of India.[144] Well before the Common Era, the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.[145]
Diamond Gemstones: Early diamonds used as gemstones originated in India.[146] Golconda served as an important center for diamonds in central India.[146] Diamonds then were exported to other parts of the world, including Europe.[146] Early references to diamonds in India come from Sanskrit texts.[147] India remained the only major source of diamonds in the world until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil.[148] The Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions diamond trade in India.[148] Buddhist works dating from the 4th century BC mention it as a well-known and precious stone but don't mention the details of diamond cutting.[149]Another Indian description written at the beginning of the 3rd century describes strength, regularity, brilliance, ability to scratch metals, and good refractive properties as the desirable qualities of a diamond.[149] A Chinese work from the 3rd century BC mentions: "Foreigners wear it [diamond] in the belief that it can ward off evil influences".[149] The Chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country, initially did not use diamond as a jewel but used as a "jade cutting knife".[149]
Indigo dye: Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major center for its production and processing.[150] The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India.[150] Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product.[150]
Jute: Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times.[151] Raw jute was exported to the western world, where it was used to make ropes and cordage.[151] The Indian jute industry, in turn, was modernized during the British Raj in India.[151] The region of Bengal was the major center for Jute cultivation, and remained so before the modernization of India's jute industry in 1855, when Kolkata became a center for jute processing in India.[151]
Sugar: Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia.[152] Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.[152] Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas,[153] and the earliest reference of candied sugar comes from India.[154] The process was soon transmitted to China with traveling Buddhist monks.[154] Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, for obtaining technology for sugar-refining.[155] Each mission returned with results on refining sugar.[155]

2. Mathematics

The Hindu-Arabic numeral system. The inscriptions on the edicts of Ashoka (1st millennium BCE) display this number system being used by the Imperial Mauryas.

Aryabhata's Aryabhatiya (476 – 550) was translated into Arabic (ca. 820 AD).[156]

Brahmagupta's theorem (598–668) states that AF = FD.

Explanation of the sine rule inYuktibhasa.
0: The concept of zero as a number, and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India.[157] In India, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number by the 9th century CE, even in case of division.[157][158]
AKS primality test: The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by threeIndian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on August 6, 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P.[159][160] Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".[160][161]
Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century.[162] He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem.[162] Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.[162]
Analysis, classical: Madhava of Sangamagrama is considered the founder of classical analysis,[163] for developing the firstTaylor series expansions of trigonometric functions and for first making use of an intuitive notion of a limit to compute his results in infintie series.[164]
Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.[165][166]
Binary numbers: The modern system of binary numerals appears in the works of German polymath Gottfried Leibnitzduring the 17th century. However, the first description of binary numbers is found in the chandaḥ-śāstra treatise of the Indian mathematician Pingala.[167][168]
Binomial coefficients: The Indian mathematician Pingala, by 300 BCE, had also managed to work with Binomial coefficients.[169][170]
Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta interpolation formula Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).[171][172]
Calculus textbook: The Yuktibhasa, written by Jyesthadeva of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in circa1530, is widely considered to be the first textbook on calculus.[173][174][175][176]
Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114–1185 CE)[177][178][179] although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950 ~ 1000 CE).[180]Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations.[181] Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm.[181][182] With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.[177][181][183]
Decimal number system: The modern decimal number system originated in India.[184][185][186][187] Other cultures discovered a few features of this number system but the system, in its entirely, was compiled in India, where it attained coherence and completion.[184] By the 9th century CE, this complete number system had existed in India but several of its ideas were transmitted to China and the Islamic world well before that time.[158][187]
Derivative and differential: In the 12th century, Bhāskara II developed the concept of a derivative and a differentialrepresenting infinitesimal change.[188]
Differential equation: In 499, the Indian mathematician Aryabhata used a notion of infinitesimals and expressed an astronomical problem in the form of a basic differential equation. Manjula, in the 10th century, elaborated on this differential equation in a commentary. This equation was eventually solved by Bhāskara II in the 12th century.[188]
Diophantine equation and Indeterminate equation: The Śulba Sūtras (literally, "Aphorisms of the Chords" in Vedic Sanskrit) (c. 700-400 BCE) list rules for the construction of sacrificial fire altars.[189] Certain Diophantine equations, particularly the case of finding the generation of Pythagorean triples, so one square integer equals the of the other two, are also found.[190]
Fibonacci numbers: The Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers named after Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci.[191] Fibonacci's 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence had been previously described in Indian mathematics.[191] The so-called Fibonacci numbers were also known to the Indian mathematician Pingala by 300 BCE.[170]
Hindu-Arabic numeral system: The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated in India.[192] Graham Flegg (2002) dates the history of the Hindu-Arabic system to the Indus valley civilization.[192] The inscriptions on the edicts of Ashoka (1st millennium BCE) display this number system being used by the Imperial Mauryas.[192] This system was later transmitted to Europe by theArabs.[192]
Large numbers: The religious texts of the Vedic Period provide evidence for the use of large numbers.[193] By the time of the last Veda, the Yajurvedasaṃhitā (1200-900 BCE), numbers as high as 1012 were being included in the texts.[193] For example, the mantra (sacrificial formula) at the end of the annahoma ("food-oblation rite") performed during the aśvamedha ("horse sacrifice"), and uttered just before-, during-, and just after sunrise, invokes powers of ten from a hundred to a trillion.[193]
Limit: The mathematicians of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics were the first to make use of an intuitive notion of a limit to compute their results in infinite series.[164]
Leibniz formula for pi The Leibniz formula for pi was derived in the early part of the 15th century by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340-1425 CE), an Indian mathematician and founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics over 200 years before Leibniz.[194][195]
Mean value theorem: An early version of this calculus theorem was first described by Parameshvara (1370–1460) from the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in his commentaries on Govindasvāmi and Bhāskara II.[196]
Negative numbers: The use of negative numbers was known in ancient India and their role in mathematical problems of debt and directions between points on a straight line was understood.[197][198] Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with these numbers were formulated.[158] The diffusion of this concept led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.[197]
Pascal triangle: The so-called Pascal triangle was solved by the Indian mathematician Pingala by 300 BCE.[169][170]
Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions tovargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation):[199][200] where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.[200]
Pi, infinite series: The infinite series for π is attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340-1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.[201][202] He made use of the series expansion of arctanx to obtain an infinite series expression, now known as the Madhava-Gregory series, for π.[201] Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π.[164] They used the improved series to derive a rational expression,[164]104348 / 33215 for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. 3.14159265359.[194][195]
Pythagorean theorem: Baudhayana (c. 8th century BCE) composed the Baudhayana Sulba Sutra, the best-known Sulba Sutra, which contains examples of simple Pythagorean triples, such as: (3,4,5), (5,12,13), (8,15,17), (7,24,25), and (12,35,37)[203] as well as a statement of the Pythagorean theorem for the sides of a square: "The rope which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area double the size of the original square."[203] It also contains the general statement of the Pythagorean theorem (for the sides of a rectangle): "The rope stretched along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle makes an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together."[203]
Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.[204]
Rolle's theorem: The calculus theorem now known as "Rolle's theorem" was first stated by the Indian mathematician, Bhāskara II, in the 12th century.[205]
Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities.[162] By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem.[162] Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.[162] By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator.[162] A dot symbol for negative numberswas also employed.[162] The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolized subtraction when written just after the number affected.[162] The '=' sign for equality did not exist.[162] Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.[206]
Taylor-Maclaurin series: In the 14th century, the earliest examples of the Taylor-Maclaurin series were first given by Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. They found a number of special cases of the Taylor series, including those for the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, tangent, and arctangent. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.[207][208][209]
Trigonometric functions: The trigonometric functions sine and versine were discovered by the Indian mathematician, Aryabhata, in the late 5th century.[210][211]


Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susrutaperformed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.

Amastigotes in a chorionic villus.Upendranath Brahmachari (December 19, 1873 - February 6, 1946) discovered Urea Stibamine, a treatment which helped nearly eradicate Visceral leishmaniasis.
Angina pectoris: The concept of Hritshoola—literally heart pain—was known to Sushruta (6th century BCE).[95] Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007) hold that: 'It embodies all the essential components of present day definition, i.e. site, nature, aggravating and relieving factors and referral."[95] Sushruta also linked this kind of pain to obesity (medoroga).[95]
Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE).[212] In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.[212] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.[212] Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary.[212] Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians.[212] The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.[213]
Circulatory system: The knowledge of circulation of vital fluids through the body was known to Sushruta (6th century BCE).[95] He also seems to possess knowledge of the arteries, described as 'channels' by Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007).[95]
Diabetes: Sushruta (6th century BCE) identified Diabetes and classified it as Madhumeha.[95] He further identified it with obesity and sedentary lifestyle, advising exercises to help cure it.[95]
Hypertension: Sushruta (6th century BCE) explained hypertension in a manner which matches the modern symptoms of the disease.[95]
Inoculation and Variolation: The earliest record of inoculation and variolation for smallpox is found in 8th century India, when Madhav wrote the Nidāna, a 79-chapter book which lists diseases along with their causes, symptoms, and complications.[214] He included a special chapter on smallpox (masūrikā) and described the method of inoculation to protect against smallpox.[214]
Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).[215] However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.[216]
Obesity: Obesity was known to Sushruta (6th century BCE), who also related it with diabetes and heart disorder.[95] He recommended physical work in order to help cure it and its side effects.[95]
Stones: The earliest operation for curing stone is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).[217] The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.[217]
Veterinary medicine: The Egyptian Papyrus of Kahun (1900 BCE) and literature of the Vedic period in India offer the first written records of veterinary medicine.[218] One of the edicts of Ashoka (272 - 231 BCE) reads: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."[60]
Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendra Nath Brahmachari (December 19, 1873 - February 6, 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.'[219] Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine.[220]Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.[220]

Diamond: Diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India,[149][221][222] where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could then be found along the riversPenner, Krishna and Godavari. It is unclear when diamonds were first mined in India, although estimated to be at least 5,000 years ago.[223] India remained the world's only source of diamonds until the 18th century.[224][225]
Zinc: Zinc was first recognised as a metal in India.Zinc metal extraction was one of the most difficult extractions but not for Indians.[226][227] Zinc mines of Zawar, nearUdaipur, Rajasthan, were active during 400 BCE.[228] There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE).[228] The Rasaratna Samuccaya which dates back to the Tantric period (c. 5th - 13th century CE) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose.[228][229] The metal extraction was then stolen by the Chinese and then used by William Champion for his metallurgy of zinc.


Bengali Chemist Prafulla Chandra Roysynthesized NH4NO2 in its pure form.

A Ramachandran plot generated from the protein PCNA, a human DNA clampprotein that is composed of both beta sheets and alpha helices (PDB ID 1AXC). Points that lie on the axes indicate N-and C-terminal residues for each subunit. The green regions show possible angle formations that includeGlycine, while the blue areas are for formations that don't include Glycine.
Atomism: The earliest references to the concept of atoms date back to India in the 6th century BCE.[230][231] The Nyayaand Vaisheshika schools developed elaborate theories of how atoms combined into more complex objects (first in pairs, then trios of pairs).[232][233] The references to atoms in the West emerged a century later from Leucippus whose student,Democritus, systematized his views. In approximately 450 BCE, Democritus coined the term átomos (Greek: ἄτομος), which means "uncuttable" or "the smallest indivisible particle of matter", i.e., something that cannot be divided. Although the Indian and Greek concepts of the atom were based purely on philosophy, modern science has retained the name coined by Democritus.[234]
Ammonium nitrite, synthesis in pure form: Prafulla Chandra Roy managed to synthesize NH4NO2 in its pure form, and became the first scientist to have done so.[235] Prior to Ray’s synthesis of Ammonium nitrite it was thought that the compound undergoes rapid thermal decomposition releasing nitrogen and water in the process.[235]
Bhabha scattering: In 1935, Indian nuclear physicist Homi J. Bhabha published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electron-positron scattering.[236] Electron-positron scattering was later named Bhabha scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field.[236]
Bose–Einstein statistics, condensate and Boson: On June 4, 1924 the Bengali professor of Physics Satyendra Nath Bose mailed a short manuscript to Albert Einstein entitled Planck's Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis seeking Einstein's influence to get it published after it was rejected by the prestigious journal Philosophical Magazine.[237] The paper introduced what is today called Bose statistics, which showed how it could be used to derive the Planck blackbody spectrum from the assumption that light was made of photons.[237][238] Einstein, recognizing the importance of the paper translated it into German himself and submitted it on Bose's behalf to the prestigious Zeitschrift für Physik.[237][238] Einstein later applied Bose's principles on particles with mass and quickly predicted the Bose-Einstein condensate.[238][239]
Chandrasekhar limit and Chandrasekhar number: Discovered by and named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his work on stellar structure and stellar evolution.[240]
Cosmic ray showers, theoretical explanation of: In 1936, physicist Homi Jehangir Bhabha collaborated with Walter Heitler to formulate a theory on cosmic ray showers.[241] They conjectured that the showers were formed by the cascade production of gamma rays and positive and negative electron pairs.[241] In this process, high energy electrons passing through matter would turn into high energy photons by means of the bremsstrahlung process.[241] The photons then produced a positive and negative electron pair, which then led to additional production of photons.[241] This process continued until the energy of the particles went below a critical value.[241]
Formal language and formal grammar: The 4th century BCE Indian scholar Pāṇini is regarded as the forerunner to these modern linguistic fields.[242]
Galena, applied use in electronics of: Bengali scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose effectively used Galena crystals for constructing radio receivers.[243] The Galena receivers of Bose were used to receive signals comprising of shortwave, white light and ultraviolet light.[243] In 1904 Bose patented the use of Galena Detector which he called Point Contact Diode using Galena.[244]
Linguistics: The study of linguistics in India dates back at least two and one-half millennia.[245] During the 5th century BCE, the Indian scholar Pāṇini had made several discoveries in the fields of phonetics, phonology, and morphology.[245]
Mahalanobis distance: Introduced in 1936 by the Indian (Bengali) statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (June 29, 1893–June 28, 1972), this distance measure, based upon the correlation between variables, is used to identify and analyze differing pattern with respect to one base.[246]
Mercurous Nitrite: The compound mercurous nitrite was discovered in 1896 by the Bengali chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy, who published his findings in the Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal.[235] The discovery contributed as a base for significant future research in the field of chemistry.[235]
Metrology: The inhabitants of the Indus valley developed a sophisticated system of standardization, using weights and measures, evident by the excavations made at the Indus valley sites.[247] This technical standardization enabled gauging devices to be effectively used in angular measurement and measurement for construction.[247] Calibration was also found in measuring devices along with multiple subdivisions in case of some devices.[247]
Molecular biophysics: Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran is considered one of the founders of the rapidly developing field of molecular biophysics,[248] for bringing together different components such as peptide synthesis, X-ray crystallography, NMR and other optical studies, and physico-chemical experimentation, together into the one field of molecular biophysics. He founded the first Molecular Biophysics Unit in 1970.[249]
Panini-Backus Form: Pāṇini's grammar rules have significant similarities to the Backus–Naur Form or BNF grammars used to describe modern programming languages, hence the notation is sometimes referred to as the Panini–Backus Form.[250][251][252]
Ramachandran plot, Ramachandran map, and Ramachandran angles: The Ramachandran plot and Ramachandran map were developed by Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, who published his results in the Journal of Molecular Biology in 1963. He also developed the Ramachandran angles, which serve as a convenient tool for communication, representation, and various kinds of data analysis.[249]
Raman effect: The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) reports: "change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. The phenomenon is named for Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who discovered it in 1928. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman effect."[253]
Raychaudhuri equation: Discovered by the Bengali physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in 1954. This was a key ingredient of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems of general relativity.[254]
Saha ionization equation: The Saha equation, derived by the Bengali scientist Meghnad Saha (October 6, 1893 – February 16, 1956) in 1920, conceptualizes ionizationsin context of stellar atmospheres.[255]
Universe: The earliest known philosophical models of the universe are found in the Vedas, the earliest texts on Indian philosophy and Hindu philosophy dating back to the late 2nd millennium BC. They describe ancient Hindu cosmology, in which the universe goes through repeated cycles of creation, destruction and rebirth, with each cycle lasting 4,320,000 years. Hindu and Buddhist philosophers also developed a theory of five classical elements: Vayu (air), Ap (water), Agni (fire), Prithvi/Bhumi (earth) andAkasha (aether). In the 6th century BC, Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika school, developed a theory of atomism and proposed that light and heat were varieties of the same substance.[256] In the 5th century AD, the Buddhist atomist philosopher Dignāga proposed atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed that movement consisted of momentary flashes of a stream of energy.[257]


Housed at the Musée Guimet, Paris: 17th century Ivory relief from Tamil Nadu, India. Ivory has been used in India since the Indus Valley Civilization.
Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook: The operator is named after Prabhu Lal Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, and Max Krook, the three scientists who introduced it in a paper in Physical Review in 1954.[258]
BCH code: The BCH error detecting codes were discovered by Hocquenghem, Bose & Ray-Chaudhuri by 1960, and are named after their inventors.[259]
Pati-Salam model: A mainstream Grand Unification Theory proposed by Jogesh Pati in collaboration with Abdus Salam in 1974.[260][261]
Ivory: The use of ivory in India dates to the Indus Valley Civilization (2300-1750 BCE).[262] Archaeological excavations have yielded combs, buttons, and other material made from Ivory.[262] The use of ivory for making figurines in India continued into the 6th century BCE.[262] Banglapedia (2008) holds that: "Stone inscriptions found at the ruins of Sanchi Stupa speak of trading in ivory crafts at Bidisha in the 1st century BC. During the Sung rule (1st century BCE) ivory craftsmen were engaged to work on the gates of the stupas at Bharhut, Buddhgaya and Sanchi. Ivory artefacts dating from the Sung period meant for cosmetic use have also been found at Chandraketu Garh in West Bengal. Ivory crafts were also popular during the Kushan period, as suggested by the abundance of ivory artefacts found at Taxila and Begram.".[262]
Public bathing: According to John Keay the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro was the size of 'a modest municipal swimming pool', complete with stairs leading down to the water at each one of its ends.[263] The bath is housed inside a larger—more elaborate—building and was used for public bathing.[263]
Radio: In 1894, the Bengali physicist, Jagdish Chandra Bose, demonstrated publicly the use of radio waves in Calcutta, but he was not interested in patenting his work.[264] He also ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance usingelectromagnetic waves, showing independently that communication signals can be sent without using wires. In 1896, theDaily Chronicle of England reported on his UHF experiments: "The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel." The 1895 public demonstration by Bose in Calcutta was before Marconi's wireless signalling experiment on Salisbury Plain in England in May 1897.[265][266]
Same language subtitling: Same Language Subtitling (SLS) refers to the idea of subtitling in the same language as the audio, converse to the original idea of subtitling, which was to present a different language.[267][268] This idea was struck upon by Brij Kothari, who believed that SLS makes reading practice an incidental, automatic, and subconscious part of popular TV entertainment, at a low per-person cost to shore up literacy rates in India. His idea was well received by the Government of India who now uses SLS on several national channels.[267][268] For his idea, Kothari was adjudged a winner at the Development Marketplace— the World Bank’s Innovation Award which gave him enough funds to implement this programme nationally. The innovation has been recognised by the Institute for Social Inventions, UK and the Tech Museum of Innovations, San Jose, USA.[267][268]
Simputer: The Simputer (acronym for "simple, inexpensive and multilingual people's computer") is a self-contained, open hardware handheld computer, designed for use in environments where computing devices such as personal computers are deemed inappropriate. It was developed in 1999 by 7 scientists of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, led by Dr. Swami Manohar in collaboration with Encore India, a company based in Bangalore.[269][270] Originally envisaged to bring internet to the masses of India, the Simputer and its derivatives are today widely utilized by governments of several Indian states as part of their e-governance drive, the Indian Army, as well as by other public and private organizations.[271][272]
Wilson-Bappu effect: In a paper published in 1957, American astronomer Olin Chaddock Wilson and Manali Kallat Vainu Bappu had described what would later be known as the Wilson-Bappu effect.[273] The effect as described by L.V. Kuhi is: 'The width of the Ca II emission in normal, nonvariable, G, K, and M stars is correlated with the visual absolute magnitude in the sense that the brighter the star the wider the emission.'[273] The paper opened up the field of stellar chromospheres for research.[274]


^ The term "India" in this article refers to the Indian Sub-continent.
The term India as used here is what was referred to as Bharat for centuries. Bharat is what the majority of Indians call their country even today.

"Geometry, and its branch trigonometry, was the mathematics Indian astronomers used most frequently. In fact, the Indian astronomers in the third or fourth century, using a pre-Ptolemaic Greek table of chords, produced tables of sines and versines, from which it was trivial to derive cosines. This new system of trigonometry, produced in India, was transmitted to the Arabs in the late eighth century and by them, in an expanded form, to the Latin West and the Byzantine East in the twelfth century."
"Two systems of Hindu thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world was composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the sun; and Vachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye.

"The Buddhists denied the existence of substantial matter altogether. Movement consists for them of moments, it is a staccato movement, momentary flashes of a stream of energy... "Everything is evanescent“,... says the Buddhist, because there is no stuff... Both systems [Sānkhya, and later Indian Buddhism] share in common a tendency to push the analysis of Existence up to its minutest, last elements which are imagined as absolute qualities, or things possessing only one unique quality. They are called “qualities” (guna-dharma) in both systems in the sense of absolute qualities, a kind of atomic, or intra-atomic, energies of which the empirical things are composed.

Both systems, therefore, agree in denying the objective reality of the categories of Substance and Quality,… and of the relation of Inference uniting them. There is in Sānkhya philosophy no separate existence of qualities. What we call quality is but a particular manifestation of a subtle entity. To every new unit of quality corresponds a subtle quantum of matter which is called guna “quality”, but represents a subtle substantive entity. The same applies to early Buddhism where all qualities are substantive… or, more precisely, dynamic entities, although they are also called dharmas ('qualities')."

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